Archive for the 'WEF' Category

Nadine Gordimer

July 14 2014

There were so many ways in which one could admire Gordimer. But “a dressing table of literary devices” is the patronising phrase that came into my mind whenever I tried to read her fiction. I’ll try again.

I had the privilege of meeting her at Davos around 1995 or ’6, when she gave a small dinner in a room at one of the hotels. She was erect, frail, commanding, elegant. When I find the transcript of her remarks (about the state of the world), which I have somewhere, I’ll put them in a comment under this post.

Guardian.

Telegraph.

Taki on Davos

February 1 2014

“Klaus Schwab, the World Economic Forum’s founder, is a serious man who means well and tries to keep the bling and glitz out of his forum, but with people like Sean Parker throwing non-stop parties in order to self-promote, his is a Sisyphean task. [...] Still, the WEF is a good thing and many good people attend it and the world’s economy is better off for it.”

Taki, Spectator, February 1. The rest of the article is not interesting, but I agree with those words.

Menuhin at Davos

January 25 2014

I ran into Menuhin at Davos in 1997 and ’98. I’m sure he was there from ’93 to ’96. Why did I never meet him then?

In 1997 he presided over one of the small dinners which required one to sign up. Sixteen or eighteen people, including me, waited for him around a square table in a wood-panelled room on the ground floor of the dowdy Kongress Hotel, next to the Congress Centre. The session was called “Economics, the sacred and social wellbeing”.

He came in from the snow with his wife, gave his hat and coat to the porter, glanced at us and muttered, quietly but audibly, “I thought I was meeting people who could influence world opinion”. The pomposity seemed unMenuhinlike. But he settled down, sitting opposite me, and led a conversation at the table over the meal. He had just been in Poland with the Sinfonia Varsovia to record the complete Schubert symphonies and said what a pleasure that had been. A look of intense concentration would cross his face occasionally, but unaffectedly, and reminded one of the nobility, transcendence and force of his playing.

It was hard to do the math with Menuhin. He had known George Enescu and Adolf Busch. He had played under Elgar in London and in Paris and had seemed to rejuvenate the old composer. Had commissioned a solo sonata from Bartók. His early recordings of Sarasate, Bazzini, Kreisler, Rimsky-Korsakov, Wieniawski, Moszkowski seemed to come from old Europe, not from an American born in 1916.

With Britten, he had performed for the surviving inmates of Bergen-Belsen. Later that year he had paid his first visit to Russia, at the invitation of the Soviet government before the Iron Curtain had fully fallen, and begun his friendship with David Oistrakh. It was a life almost impossibly full of memories and memorabilia and he was conscious of its extraordinariness. And here he was, only eighty years old.

The next morning, on the Davos Promenade, someone trotted up behind me and said: “Mr Derrick! You saved the evening.” It was Menuhin’s amanuensis. I can’t remember his name. I must have looked surprised. I can’t now, and could hardly then, remember anything I had said. “You certainly broke the ice. Lady Menuhin would like to send you her book and I am sure they would like to see you in London.”

She had probably said to him: “Really, Yehudi, you weren’t exactly charming when you came in.” I said I’d be delighted to meet her. She had been wonderful at the dinner: funny and outspoken, so outspoken at times as to be a bit embarrassing, like Pauline Strauss or Susana Walton.

“She is not well today, and is in bed.” But I took their London number and later that day an inscribed copy of Diana Gould’s, Lady Menuhin’s, A Glimpse of Olympus arrived at my hotel.

It was difficult to grasp that I was living in the same city as them and within walking distance. Diana Gould, four years older than Yehudi, had been a dancer. She had studied with Lubov Egorova in Paris and Marie Rambert in London. Diaghilev spotted her and invited her to join his Ballets Russes (in Paris), but he died before it could happen. She was then engaged to dance with Anna Pavlova’s troupe in London, but she also died. I presume the company was dissolved. She continued to dance at Rambert’s Ballet Club and created roles there with Frederick Ashton.

She danced in Max Reinhardt’s production of The Miracle at the Lyceum in 1932 and with George Balanchine’s Les ballets 1933 in London and Paris. She declined Balanchine’s offer to join his school in the US, which became the New York City Ballet. “Longing to say yes, but young and frightened at such a great leap into what might be the dark, this idiotic English virgin [...] said no.” (A Glimpse of Olympus.)

Massine then invited her to join Colonel de Basil’s Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, a successor of Diaghilev’s company.

She also worked for a time with the Alicia Markova- Anton Dolin company in London. She acted in theatre. During the war she was the leading dancer of the Arts Theatre Ballet and prima ballerina of Jay Pomeroy’s Russian Opera and Ballet Company at the Cambridge Theatre. From 1944 to ’46 she acted, danced and sang the role of Frou Frou in The Merry Widow in London and on an ENSA tour in Egypt and Italy. She married Menuhin in 1947, after he had divorced his Australian wife Nola.

She was described by Anna Pavlova as the only English dancer she had seen who “had a soul”, by Arnold Haskell as “the most musical young dancer the English dance has produced”, and by herself as “the awfully frank and frankly awful Diana”. (Wikipedia, first and last; Guardian.)

A Glimpse of Olympus appeared in 1996 and was about her own life. There had been an earlier memoir, in 1984, Fiddler’s Moll.

She threw herself into Menuhin’s life, but sometimes felt an “agonising nostalgia” for her years in the ballet. “He cannot fight for himself.” His memoirs speak of her “grace, intelligence, ardour, vitality and depth of feeling”. “It is a joy, a comfort and an inspiration to know beauty in many different forms: the sound of a violin, the objects around one, above all the beauty of one’s wife.” (Telegraph, first two and last; Guardian.)

Unsympathetic ears can find the Menuhin sound harsh on occasion, like Callas’s voice. As his technique declined, there were no doubt some scratchy performances. His commanding playing of the Chaconne from the second Bach Partita might be too emotional and subjective for some Bach tastes (not for mine).

Michael Kennedy, DNB: “His technique was often suspect mainly because of a weakness of his bowing arm, causing the bow to ‘stutter’ on the strings. He traced the fault to his studies with Adolf Busch: ‘If you look at the old photographs, the position of the bow arm is absolutely atrocious – the high elbow with a pressure exerted through the first finger and hence the lack of a proper balance in the bow. The trouble is I played too well. I never studied with a pedagogue like Carl Flesch.’ [...] Whatever imperfections there may have been in his technique on occasions, [...] at its best his playing had a seraphic spiritual quality which seemed to come from some supernatural source.”

Enesco and Dinu Lipatti were for him manifestations of a “spiritual realm, impregnable in its resistance to [...] pain and suffering”. (Foreword to Dragos Tanaescu, Grigore Bargauanu, Lipatti, English edition, London, Kahn and Averill, 1988.)

I called 65 Chester Square on returning to London. Menuhin picked up the phone. “Oh yes, yes …” The call wasn’t awkward, but, of course, it led to nothing. I had thanked his wife at Davos with a note, but why didn’t I ask to speak to her?

Menuhin had a feeling for England and he became a British citizen. His relationship with English music – Elgar, Delius, Vaughan Williams, Walton, Tippett, Britten – is a subject by itself. He was a fine Elgar conductor as well as player. Delius must have heard of Menuhin, because when Elgar flew to Paris in the early summer of 1933 to conduct Menuhin in his concerto in the Salle Pleyel, he also took a taxi to Grez to spend an afternoon with the blind composer. Eric Fenby was away, but decades later, Menuhin recorded the three Delius sonatas with Fenby accompanying. (Delius had completed the third of them in 1930 with Fenby’s help.) He also recorded Delius’s concerto, and, with Paul Tortelier, the double concerto. Menuhin discography (covers him as performer, not conductor).

He took up conducting as director of the Bath Festival (1958-68). In the ’80s, he began to withdraw as a soloist and to conduct more. His last appearance as a violinist was at the Gstaad Festival in 1996. His style as conductor was swift, intuitive, poetic, the results notably unportentous. He recorded a Beethoven cycle with the Sinfonia Varsovia. I found myself missing something weightier and more ernst in the fifth.

Menuhin was indiscriminately generous in his views on many people and liberal in his views on social matters. Hard as he worked, he was fond of saying that one did not always need to be doing something: he knew the benefits of idleness. For all his new-age diet and his yoga, he knew the value of comfort and safety. In the last part of his life he had houses in Belgravia and Gstaad and on Mykonos. He could be vain.

Michael Kennedy in DNB: “In New Zealand [in 1951] Menuhin read a book about yoga, which he practised for the rest of his life. He learned more about it when he toured India in March 1952. After discussing it with the Indian prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, he was challenged to stand on his head in full evening dress at a state reception. He did so, whereupon Nehru followed suit. He also formed a firm friendship with the great sitar player Ravi Shankar. Thereafter he was an enthusiast for Indian music and played in partnership with Shankar, just as some years later he played violin duos with the jazz virtuoso Stéphane Grappelli.”

The Nehru challenge would have made a good Davos moment. Menuhin was often or always at Davos with Shankar.

“The performing artist continually reviews the hours, days and weeks preceding a performance, charting the many elements that will release his potential – or put a brake upon it. He knows that when his body is exercised, his blood circulating, his stomach light, his mind clear, the music ringing in his heart, his violin clean and polished, its strings in good order, the bow hair full and evenly spread, then – but then only – he is in command. But neglect of the least of these elements must gnaw his conscience. The audience, even the critic, may not suspect his troubled conscience, or may ascribe a blemish to an irrelevant cause, all unaware of the player’s silent admission of insufficiency, his self-disgust, his begging to be given another chance. Even if no fault is noted, the audience’s plaudits, their stamping and standing, are of no comfort to him then.

“So a violinist (like any other artist) lives in training. He makes his body his vocation. His stance must be erect yet supple so that, like a graceful reed, he may wave with the breeze and yet remain perfectly aligned from head through spine to feet. He is a living structure stretched between the magnets of sun and earth.” (Unfinished Journey.)

Menuhin’s first Davos was in ’89. I believe that he influenced the WEF policy on artists who were invited. People such as Rodion Shchedrin, Vladimir Spivakov, Jeffrey TateJulian Lloyd-Webber.

Some of these may have come back, but after Menuhin died, the WEF became more celebrity-conscious than it had been before (Bono, Hollywood). The celebs jumped on the bandwagon. This year, Gergiev was there, but, one feels, partly as a brand and star.

There was another dinner in 1998. His wife, increasingly bedridden, wasn’t in Davos. Somebody said after it that his relation to the discussion was that of a soloist with an ensemble, coming forward, picking up the argument, withdrawing. He said at one stage: “Of course this [life] isn’t everything.”

No dinner in ’99, or none that I got to, but he conducted a closing concert in the Sanada room, the first Menuhin Davos concert I’d been aware of. I think a Rossini overture, a Mozart violin concerto and Mendelssohn’s Italian symphony. I don’t have programmes for ’98/’99 and can’t remember who the players were. He came to the back of the room between bows at the end, arms swinging in fatigue. (I remember swinging arms the last time I saw another immigrant Jew married to an English Diana: Fred Uhlman.)

It was one of the last concerts of a performing career that had begun in San Francisco seventy-six years earlier. Six weeks later he died in a Berlin hospital, having written from his bed a letter on some social matter to a policy-maker and world opinion-influencer, Gordon Brown. His wife died four years later.

I was riveted by at least one Menuhin recording before I could read, a ten-inch EP of Bach and Handel: the double concerto with Gioconda de Vito and the Philharmonia Orchestra under Anthony Bernard, and the second trio sonata in Handel’s opus 5, in D, with Menuhin, John Shinebourne and George Malcolm. It’s considered a rare record. I’m told that I listened to it “very quietly and intently” at the age of three. The performance style is old-fashioned. Are there really only three players in the Handel? YouTube has the first movement of each piece:

Elgar, Menuhin, Albert Hall, November 20 1932; Menuhin is glancing towards Beecham, who conducted him before the interval in Bach and Mozart; Elgar took over in the second half in the second of his three Menuhin collaborations:

NPG x20671; Yehudi Menuhin and Sir Edward Elgar, Bt by Aram Alban

LGBT issues and Davos

January 24 2014

Felix Salmon. The WEF has registered same-sex partners, and probably spouses, as participants for a decade or longer, but doesn’t bring LGBT matters into the programme. Nigeria, never mind Russia, has a high profile at Davos now, with Jonathan present and Aliko Dangote co-chair.

Urbs in montibus

January 23 2014

This had to happen. Even in the 1880s, Davos presented “a row of first class hotels”.

But till recently the charm of the WEF Annual Meeting was that it was a retreat for most participants into fairly simple conditions. That simplicity gave the week its flavour.

Now an InterContinental brings the big city into town. (It actually opened at the end of 2012.) Farewell rusticity. Marble replaces local wood. The Belvedere, which was the leading hotel, and was at least somewhat local (German arches in the restaurant) has been upstaged.

Klaus Schwab might not be happy. “People know that I am very much against caviar and champagne and expensive wines, which are out of character with the atmosphere of a mountain village.” (As told to Nick Paumgarten the other year in The New Yorker.) That atmosphere is fast disappearing.

The newcomer isn’t necessarily a bad building, and it only has 216 rooms. At least a plan to build a skyscraper next to the Schatzalp – a skyscraper on top of a mountain seeming an offence against nature – has been shelved, and the inaccessible (in winter, except by funicular) former sanatorium continues in its old-fashioned Swiss isolation.

Tchaikovsky en route to Davos

January 19 2014

We have met Tchaikovsky in Davos in November 1884, a visit which left its mark on his Manfred symphony.

We have heard a piece of choral music which he composed there.

On the way to Davos, in Berlin in the same month, he composed this:

Chamber Orchestra Kremlin, Misha Rachlevsky, Rachmaninov Hall of the Moscow Conservatory, September 2008

Tchaikovsky left Saint Petersburg for Davos on 1/13 November. He stopped in Berlin for four days. There, on 6/18 November, the piece was completed (according to the date on the manuscript).

He called it A Grateful Greeting. It had been commissioned by the Moscow Society of Artists as part of a tribute to an actor and director, Ivan Samarin.

On 7/19 November 1884, he wrote from Munich to his brother Modest: “I stayed so long in Berlin, because I needed to be able to compose quickly [...] an entr’acte for the Samarin production. The latter has been done and dispatched.”

He saw Weber’s Oberon there which, to his surprise, he enjoyed.

Tchaikovsky-research.net has details of all Tchaikovsky’s travels. One could write an essay called Tchaikovsky’s hotels

A little of the ethos of those hotels lingered in 2006, when I was last there, at the Schatzalp in Davos, with its soup at mealtimes, its Tauchnitz library, its regular hours, its airy and austere rooms. I think they were still keeping your napkin for you from meal to meal. The few WEF participants who stayed there dimly suggested the international society which gathered in Swiss hotels in the belle époque.

Foreboding at Vevey (old post).

The Schatzalp was not the unnamed Davos hotel which Tchaikovsky visited. Nor, though it started as a sanatorium, was it the one where Yosif Kotek, his tubercular friend, whom he was visiting, was staying.

The first performance of the Samarin piece was conducted by Ippolit Altani at Samarin’s jubilee concert at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on 16/28 December, under its original title, A Grateful Greeting.

Samarin died in the following year. Tchaikovsky published the piece in 1890 with the title Elegy and dedication In Memory of I.V. Samarin and used it as the entr’acte preceding Act IV in his music for a production of Hamlet at the Mariinskii Theatre in 1891.

There are other versions on YouTube, with the USSR Symphony Orchestra and Svetlanov, with the Academia de Muzică, Teatru și Arte Plastice of Chișinău and Patrick Strub, and with the Novosibirsk Philharmonic and Thomas Sanderling. There is also the complete Hamlet music with the Russian National Orchestra and Pletnev. (Or nearly compete. Didn’t it have a soprano song?)

Elegies belong to strings. Fauré’s and Elgar’s were for strings. Grieg wrote Two Elegiac Melodies for Strings. Stravinsky wrote one for solo viola. Tchaikovsky’s other elegy for strings is the third movement of the 1880 Serenade.

There are really two Tchaikovsky winter symphonies: the first, which I posted recently, and Manfred. The marking lugubre occurs in both. The finale of the first begins with an andante lugubre. Manfred begins with a lento lugubre. For me, Manfred is, on the evidence of Svetlanov’s reading, Tchaikovsky’s greatest orchestral composition. That is a controversial view. He wrote it at the same time as Brahms was writing his greatest, the fourth symphony.

Poulenc composed much of the Dialogues des carmélites at the Majestic Hotel in Cannes in the ’50s and talks on film somewhere about a cycle of working in his room and going down to the bar and going back to work.

From Davos Tchaikovsky travelled to Paris and thence, in December, back to Russia.

Davos 2014

January 19 2014

Having hidden the programme altogether last year, the WEF is showing it here, but without panelists.

If security is the worry, it should publish a programme with names but without locations. Why should it be a secret that you are in Davos?

A righteous man

December 5 2013

Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrikaMiriam Makeba, Ladysmith Black Mambazo, Paul Simon, Rufaro Stadium, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1987. Mandela was released from Victor Verster prison in 1990.

July 18 1918: Born in Mvezo, Eastern Cape (Transkei)

1925: School near the village of Qunu, Eastern Cape, given name Nelson by a teacher who insists that pupils have a Christian name

1939: University College of Fort Hare, Alice, Eastern Cape

1940: Expelled from Fort Hare for joining a protest

1941: Moves to Johannesburg to escape arranged marriage, works briefly as a night watchman at a mine, starts work as trainee lawyer at Witkin, Sidelsky & Eidelman, studies at night

1942: Completes BA (in what?) at University of South Africa, Pretoria

1943: Joins ANC, enrols for law degree at University of Witwatersrand; fails final exams three times, degree is never awarded

1944: Co-founds ANC Youth League, marries Evelyn Mase, with whom he has two sons and two daughters

1951: Elected president of ANC Youth League

1952: Arrested for violating laws aimed at suppressing communism and sentenced to nine months imprisonment with hard labour suspended for two years, opens South Africa’s first black law firm with Oliver Tambo, elected ANC deputy president

1956: Arrested and charged with treason, along with 155 others, all are acquitted (the Treason Trials)

1958: Divorces Evelyn Mase and marries Nomzamo Winnie Madikizela, with whom he has two daughters

1960: Detained following banning of ANC and imposition of a state of emergency

1961: Goes underground, helps to co-found ANC’s military wing and is appointed its commander-in-chief, South Africa becomes a republic May 31 and leaves the Commonwealth

1962: Leaves the country January 11 to travel in Africa, arrested August 5 on return (Marshall Square Prison, Johannesburg), convicted of incitement to strike and leaving country illegally, sentenced November 7 to five years’ imprisonment (Pretoria, Robben Island off coast of Cape Town, Pretoria)

1963: after July 11 police raid on Liliesleaf Farm in Johannesburg suburb of Rivonia also charged with sabotage, Rivonia trial begins in Pretoria October 9

June 11-12 1964: Convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment, sent to Robben Island

1982: Transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor prison in Cape Town, rejects President PW Botha’s offer to free him if he renounces violence, undergoes prostate surgery

1988: Contracts tuberculosis, transferred to Victor Verster prison, outside Cape Town

February 11 1990: Released from prison

1990: Elected ANC deputy president

1991: Elected ANC president

1993: Awarded Nobel Peace Prize with President FW de Klerk

April 27 1994: Votes for first time in his life in South Africa’s first democratic election

May 10 1994: Inaugurated as president

1996: Divorces Winnie Mandela

1998: Marries Graca Machel on his 80th birthday

June 14 1999: Steps down after one term as president

2001: Diagnosed with prostate cancer

2002: Begins global campaign to fight AIDS

2004: Withdrawal from public life

2005: Reveals that eldest son, Makgatho, died of an AIDS-related illness

2008: 90th birthday

2010: Public appearance at final of soccer World Cup

2011-13: Hospital visits

December 5 2013: Dies in Johannesburg

I remember the moment I realised Mandela actually was a great man: it was while watching a BBC documentary about him long after his release.

I saw him at Davos during his presidency. I remember him standing with a few people in the snow outside the lower entrance to the old congress centre, near the Extrablatt café. A waiter was standing near him, perhaps hesitating to cross his path. Mandela pulled the chap towards him so that they could be photographed together. I hope the man got the picture.

Uncharted: The Berkeley Festival of Ideas

September 25 2013

Uncharted: The Berkeley Festival of Ideas.

It will be what it claims. The pitch, in the unabashed style of its founder:

“Hi,

I thought you’d be interested in my latest brainstorm, and I’d love your help in spreading the word. Even better, I’d love to see you at Uncharted.

After plenty of years of doing Davos-like things for others, I’m now doing it for myself.* This October, I’m launching Uncharted: The Berkeley Festival of Ideas, October 25-26 in downtown Berkeley, California. Uncharted is, amazingly, the first ideas festival in the Bay Area — the world’s greatest generator of ideas. It’s a two-day gathering for “infovores”: people who are engaged across a variety of domains, eager to share ideas, grapple with provocative thinking, and have their preconceptions challenged. People, it seems to me, like you and many people in your various networks.

This isn’t remotely intended to be a Davos Lite (or All Things D, or Disrupt, or a host of others). It’s not about CEOs or Presidents, no speakers are there because of their institutional title, no one is making a corporate or product pitch, it most likely will not be the place where you strike your next big deal. Uncharted is purely about ideas, and I’ve hand-selected the speakers and topics to provoke, prod and push participants’ thinking.

There will be no panels in the conventional sense: most of Uncharted will be one-on-one or one-on-two conversations. We’ll also have a space devoted to truly hands on, interactive workshops. I’m intent on Uncharted being a festival (not, horrors, a conference or a summit or a symposium). So there will be plenty of fun, music, food and drink. And, I hope, more than a touch of the unexpected. And the tone and culture will be that of a bootstrapped start-up, because that’s what we are.

What happens at Uncharted? UC Berkeley’s Ananya Roy on global poverty, economist Brad DeLong and big data maven Josh Bloom on robotics and employment (my title: “I for one welcome our new robot overlords”), ex-Wired Editor Chris Anderson on the new industrial revolution, io9’s Annalee Newitz on humans and mass extinction, innovation guru Vivek Wadhwa on what works and what doesn’t work for entrepreneurship, Daily Kos’ Markos Moulitsas on the 2014 midterm elections, National Center for Lesbian Rights’ Kate Kendell on the frontier of civil rights, right-wing wunderkind Josh Barro on the prospects for a responsible Republic Party… and a great Friday night party for festivalgoers at the Brutalist masterpiece Berkeley Art Museum. And much, much more.

If this sounds intriguing, I’d love to see you there. I’d certainly very much appreciate any help you can give in telling people about Uncharted and how amazing it will be to have the Bay Area’s first ideas festival.

You can find out more about Uncharted on our website. [...] (You can also go straight to the ticket purchase with this link.) Please encourage your Bay Area friends to come. Proceeds from Uncharted will help support Berkeleyside, the thriving local news website I co-founded four years ago. I’m convinced that as Uncharted grows, it can become the tail that wags the dog for our independent local journalism.

I’m very eager in any case to hear what you think of Uncharted.

I hope to see you in Berkeley in October.

Yours,

Lance

*I continue to do it for others. Something still has to pay the bills.”

___

San Francisco (old post).

Thousands of civilisations 2

June 1 2013

I added some Toynbee to the last post.

The idea of directed panspermia has had respectable scientific attention, but was popularised by a Swiss charlatan, Erich von Däniken, in Chariots of the Gods? (Erinnerungen an die Zukunft: Ungelöste Rätsel der Vergangenheit) (Germany and US, 1968).

He wrote it while manager, from 1964, of the now-demolished Hotel Rosenhügel at Davos. I stayed there for WEF Annual Meetings in the late ’90s when it was run by the much more endearingly eccentric, unforgettable, Eva Ewald and her twin brother. She looked like WH Auden and had grown up something of an anti-Nazi in East Prussia. So I dedicate the last post to her memory.

Rosenhuegel

Song of the Bride

May 16 2013

The young Menuhin playing, with Hubert Giesen, an arrangement of the Song of the Bride from Rimsky’s The Tsar’s Bride. London, December 11 1930. Meeting Menuhin was one of the great moments of my life. I’ll describe it next time I write about Davos. Another post of the same recording.

The music Tchaikovsky wrote in Davos

January 27 2013

… was the third of the three settings of the cherubic hymn that are the first three of his Nine Church Pieces for unaccompanied mixed voices of 1884-85 (three settings of the same words).

Performers not stated.

I did a post about Tchaikovsky’s stay in Davos in November 1884 here.

The nine pieces are all liturgical settings. His Liturgy of St John Chrysostom for the same forces from 1878 had set some of these texts (and others), including the words of the cherubic hymn.

This is the main (not only) divine liturgy in the Byzantine rite and is used by all Orthodox Churches. John was Archbishop of Constantinople from 398 to 404. The title of Patriarch came after the Council of Chalcedon. Kievan Rus was converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity in 988, nearly half a millennium before the fall of Constantinople.

Tchaikovsky wrote to Balakirev about the sacred pieces on November 17 (Julian calendar). That was the day he left Davos. Did he post the letter there or in Landquart?

That date and the quotations below are from Tchaikovsky Research. My link to Bortnianskii.

“I have written three Cherubim’s Songs, which I am now sending to you. … If His Majesty orders [the Imperial Chapel Choir] to study one of them, then I humbly ask you, my good fellow, to choose which one of the three you consider to be superior. In my opinion the third (in C major) is the best, but I fear lest my attempt to imitate non-notated sacred chants (in «Яко да Царя» [‘That we may receive the King’: the opening words of a verse in the Cherubic Song]) should strike you as unsuccessful and inappropriate. Then again the remaining two are different, in that one (in D major) sounds closer in style to Bortnianskii, while the other is much further away, although I am admittedly a poor judge of my own works, and you have complete discretion to choose any one of them.”

Balakirev, who was director of the Imperial Chapel, was important to Tchaikovsky at this time as a kind of mentor for the Manfred Symphony, which, as I showed in the earlier post and had always suspected, was partly inspired by this visit to Davos. And no sacred score could be published or performed without the Chapel’s imprimatur.

Tchaikovsky Research shouldn’t present Balakirev’s reply, presumably from St Petersburg, as being from the following day.

“I received your Cherubim’s Songs some time ago, and since I was not ordered to make a hasty decision, I sent them to your publisher friend in order to study them from the printed parts, which is more straightforward for choral works. On their relative merits I shall say nothing, since I have hardly seen them. But with regard to the one in C major, which you prefer, then I am not sure that it could be considered the best. Its opening is ruined by piquances [...] [my bracket], has no spice to it and sounds like a kind of dance rhythm [after the opening notes]. Anyway, in spite of these reservations, it is my considered opinion they should all be published.”

“Considered” even though he had hardly seen them? Ruined by piquances, but lacking spice?

[Postscript, January 29: the site has tidied up the translation and corrected the date of the letter to December 18 (Julian).]

The C major hymn is perhaps not very Orthodox-ecclesiastical. Do we hear a dance rhythm? Did Tchaikovsky, who loved church music, think that he had imitated non-notated sacred chants successfully? His “publisher friend” was Petr Jurgenson.

Some of Bortnianskii’s music, including cherubic hymns, is on YouTube.

The first performance of the nine pieces was in the Moscow Conservatory in February 1886.

___

It is hard to judge Davos when you are not there. But the evidence of the “public programme” posted on the Forum’s website this year wasn’t encouraging. It was only the public programme (an idea that came in circa 2002 as a gesture towards inclusiveness), but why is the real one no longer posted? It wouldn’t have to show times and locations, but why hide it? The public programme had unexciting people on panels and too many of them.

Christmas Eve

December 24 2012

A century ago.

Arnold Bax composed the tone poem Christmas Eve on the Mountains in 1912 and revised it in 1921 as Christmas Eve.

Quoted by David Parlett: “The motif of this tone-poem occurred to me whilst wandering one frosty evening last winter [1911-12] [bracket in original] in the beautiful and legended Gleann na Smól [my link], in county Dublin.” A quasi-Irish tune is related to one in the first string quartet.

A bar that admits Britten, Delius, Elgar, Holst, Tippett, Vaughan Williams, Walton as great composers does not (I think) quite admit Bax. I will allow Butterworth through, though he died at only thirty-one. Bax wrote seven symphonies between the wars.

“Music for the solitary inebriate,” someone (Beecham?) unkindly said.

London Philharmonic, Bryden Thompson. Organ, Malcolm Hicks. Not to be confused with operas by Rimsky-Korsakov (Christmas Eve) or Tchaikovsky (Vakula the Smith) after the story Christmas Eve by Gogol.

The Kirchner image reminds one that Davos is a month away.

Magic Mountain

March 2 2012

The best-written account of Davos I have ever read, all the more remarkable in coming from a first-timer: Nick Paumgarten in The New Yorker.

He is right about Klaus Schwab’s “dogged sincerity”, which doesn’t change with the years. “Professor Schwab says that he doesn’t go to any of the private parties. ‘We do not welcome them,’ he told me. ‘They detract from what we are doing. Many people come to Davos to exploit the presence of so many top-level people. They organize shadow programs.’ [...] ‘People know that I am very much against caviar and champagne and expensive wines, which are out of character with the atmosphere of a mountain village.’”

That battle was lost long ago: I dated the final capitulation to 2003.

“[Gunnar Jauch] showed me a cartoon that encapsulated his feeling about the W.E.F. annual meeting. It depicts a woman in a fur coat walking into the Congress Center and saying to her companion, ‘There are so many sessions, I can’t decide between “hunger” and “poverty.”’”

Flecker and Davos

January 29 2012

Delius loved mountains, and was Nietzschean. Today is his 150th birthday. One of the last works he finished before Eric Fenby became his amanuensis was incidental music for Hassan, a play by James Elroy Flecker, who died in a Davos sanatorium (on the day my father was born, as it happens, January 3 1915). Flecker’s tuberculosis prevented him from becoming a war poet.

See my post on Ken Russell.

Intermezzo and Serenade from Hassan, arrangement by Thomas Beecham, John Barbirolli, Hallé Orchestra, Robert Tear, tenor:

Davos 2012

January 29 2012

Last year, I had to do a Wikileaks in order to post the Davos programme in advance, since for some reason the World Economic Forum no longer publishes it thus online. This year, my sources weren’t there or weren’t sharing. You can see it now, after it’s all over.

Lance Knobel wrote some Davos thoughts. He was there from 1993 to 2001, I from ’93 to ’06. His post is an equivalent of my retrospective. The joke about “Committed to improving the state of the world” sounding like local government (London Borough of Camden, actually) was mine. I agree with him when he says, before all the qualifications: “The Forum is truly committed to improving the state of the world, and some of the corporations that are members are wholly on board with that mission.” Some things can be taken at face value. It doesn’t mean they succeed.

From ’08 to ’10, I worked for a company that sent me to some other meetings, in China, Turkey, Jordan, South Africa. We had CEO-only rights at Davos, so I couldn’t go back there.

I enjoyed the regional meetings less as an ordinary participant than I had done as a semi-insider. I became more aware of the waffle. (Whiteboards had become de rigeur. By the end of a session, if not at the beginning, they had to have exuberant but incomprehensible markings on them in many colours. Afterwards, they would be collected and made to line a corridor.) Lance: “The dark, dirty secret you learn when you run the program at Davos is that the vast majority of CEOs have nothing to say. That doesn’t mean they are bad CEOs. It’s just that there is no correlation between being a successful business leader and having interesting ideas and the ability to express them.” Many CEOs experience practically nothing when they travel.

“Fast-moving events, like the beginnings of the Arab Spring one year ago, leave the Forum flat footed. So, too, do the kinds of faint rumblings that might just turn into something significant, but could also be a bust. The Forum isn’t about weak signals or the long tail. It navigates skillfully along the tides of conventional wisdom, but with just slight deviances in the course so that there is the appearance of freshness and discovery.

“[...] The staff of the Forum has grown at least threefold. There’s a decidedly engineering-like approach to building the program now, with a cascade of agenda councils and meetings. I was, and am, more attuned to artisanal production. To my eyes, all the additional resources and grand processes has just pressed the program flatter and flatter. Davos continues to attract absolutely extraordinary people. But they are forced into discussions where the unremarkable is the norm.

“[...] Davos remains a wonderful privilege. If I were ever invited again, I’d be on the next plane to Zurich (fat chance, I know). I had some of the best experiences of my life working on Davos [...].”

Swiss cleanness, cold air, a thrilling confluence from around the world, a residual rustic simplicity (disappearing now, I sense). Dôle wine, snow, the swell of technological change under it all. The best years were before 9/11. Before the Seattle riots of 1999, actually. Seattle was a foreshock of 2011-12. After them, the security barriers started rising and the easy-goingness which had given the Annual Meeting its charm was gone.

Felix Salmon.

BBC.

Opening session: Merkel. Crystal Awards (Midori, Luc Besson, Yvonne Chaka Chaka). Better at the end of the week where they used to be. I love Tutu, but does he ever step down from the pulpit?

I’ve written a lot about Davos here, partly about the meeting, partly about the history of the town and canton.

Assassinations in Davos and Paris

The Tomasee: source of the Rhine near Landquart

Assassinations in Davos and Paris

January 28 2011

Davos was the headquarters of the Swiss branch of the Nazi party.

From wilhelmgustloff.com:

“It is January 31, 1936 [...]. David Frankfurter, a struggling 25 year old [actually 26 year-old] Jewish medical student studying in Switzerland, is leaving Bern by train carrying only a briefcase.

“His destination is Davos – a 270 kilometre (170 mile) train trip via Zurich. The purpose of his journey has nothing to do with his studies. His mission is to assassinate Wilhelm Gustloff, leader (or Landesgruppenleiter) of the NSDAP (Nazi party) in Switzerland.

“Frankfurter checks himself into the Hotel Metropol-Löwen [no longer there] in Davos and will wait until the 4th of February to attempt his daunting task. [...] the 4th falls on a Tuesday, considered a Jewish day of good luck (Ki Tov). [...]

“In the meantime, he anonymously explores the picturesque winter-resort town, known for its towering peaks and clean dry air. In his room, the revolver he purchased for only 10 francs in Bern remains discreetly tucked away in his briefcase.

“Historical hindsight being as it is, it is easy to understand why Frankfurter viewed the Nazis as a threat. His own direct personal experiences with growing anti-Semitism in Germany had influenced his retreat into ‘neutral’ Switzerland – ultimately providing a ‘safer haven’ for his decision to take action against the Nazi menace. Steadily, his studies become compromised by overwhelming fixation with the anti-Semitic charged political environment. Periodicals such as Der Stürmer and the Nuremburg Laws passed in Germany during 1935 only fuel his resolve and conviction. By the time Frankfurter purchases his short-barrel Browning revolver, he claims to feel like ‘an insignificant weapon in the hand of God’.

“Tuesday the 4th arrives. Snow crunching under his feet, Frankfurter walks up to the front door of the Gustloff residence. After ringing the doorbell, Gustloff’s wife, Hedwig, calls down from upstairs. ‘Is Herr Gustloff at home and can I speak with him?’ he calls back. She is used to her husband having many visitors, so without a second thought she leads Frankfurter through the house to Gustloff’s study. He promptly takes a seat. For five minutes [apparently Gustloff was on the telephone] his eyes peruse Nazi regalia including a picture of Hitler signed for Gustloff. Thoughts roll around in his head like a storm. He clutches the revolver hidden in his coat pocket and at the ready.

“Gustloff strides in the room and greets his guest with ‘Here I am!’ Without any response, David Frankfurter fires his revolver. Four (4) shots hit their mark in Gustloff’s head and upper body. Frau Hedwig enters the room just after the final shot and sees her husband lying crumpled, bleeding and dying on the floor of the study. In haste, Frankfurter passes her without saying a word and leaves through the front door as the sounds of her cries ring in his ears.

“Frankfurter has no intention of running from his premeditated deed, but he leaves the scene dazed, unstable, and contemplating suicide. He remains of the conviction that his act is not a crime – it is a strike at the Nazi menace and revenge for the ‘spilled blood of Israel’. He even returns to the scene of the crime to telephone the police from elderly neighbors. Regardless, he eventually walks to the nearest police station and turns himself in.

“After some initial disbelief on the part of an officer on duty, Frankfurter does not leave any doubt as to his culpability. He makes a confession to the officer – explaining that he fired the shots not for personal reasons, but because he is a Jew. He further explains that he is fully aware of his actions and is without regret. Later, he will repeat similar statements in a Swiss court – robbing the trial of any suspense.

“The Nazis are anxious to use this opportunity to exploit the assassination of Gustloff to further the causes of an anti-Semitic agenda. Only the Olympic games and the Führer’s deliberate patience for retaliation subdue an outright attack on the Jewish community. It is unlikely that many in the world (including perhaps many in Germany itself) had heard of Gustloff. However, being the first Nazi leader to be assassinated by a Jew, the Nazis are determined to make him a martyr. A garish state funeral on February 12th ensues in his birthplace of Schwerin, only after his casket takes a long journey of ‘martyrdom’ from Davos through many towns on the way to his final resting place.

“It is during this memorial service for the Swiss Nazi leader that the superstitious Führer exploits an opportunity to rename a groundbreaking ship originally destined to bear his name – a project just recently commissioned to be built for the KdF by Blohm & Voss shipyards. When the ship is launched next spring, it will be re-named the Wilhelm Gustloff.”

___

Gustloff had been born in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin on January 30 1895. He worked as a Swiss government meteorologist and joined the Nazi party in 1929. In 1932 he founded the Swiss branch at Davos.

His coffin was transported to Schwerin by train, with stops in Stuttgart, Würzburg, Erfurt, Halle, Magdeburg and Wittenberg. Hitler, Goebbels, Göring, Himmler, Bormann and Ribbentrop attended his funeral. His widow, mother and brother were present.

The Nazis had plans in 1940 for the invasion of Switzerland which were never put into effect: Operation Tannenbaum.

___

Frankfurter (July 9 1909-July 19 1982) had been born in Croatia when it was part of Austria-Hungary. He studied medicine in Vienna, Leipzig and Frankfurt. The rise of the Nazis forced him to continue them in Switzerland. He settled in Bern in 1934.

At his trial at Chur, the capital of Graubünden, he was sentenced to eighteen years in prison. On February 27 1945, he applied for a pardon, which was granted on June 1 on the condition that he left Switzerland and paid restitution and court costs. He travelled to the British Mandate of Palestine and lived in Tel Aviv. He became a clerk in the Israeli Minister of Defence.

The cantonal government rescinded its no-entry order against him in September 1969.

Frankfurter is an obscure figure. This is the best image of him online.

___

Most of wilhelmgustloff.com is about the ship.

She was built as a cruise liner for the Deutsche Arbeitsfront and used by its subsidiary organisation Kraft durch Freude (KdF) to provide recreation for German officials and workers.

During the summer of 1939, she brought the Condor Legion home from Spain after the victory of the Nationalist forces under Franco.

On September 1 1939 she was requisitioned into the Kriegsmarine. She served as a hospital ship during 1939 and 1940.

Beginning on November 20 1940, she was stripped of medical equipment and repainted from hospital ship colours (white with a green stripe) to standard naval grey and assigned as a floating barracks for naval personnel at the Baltic port of Gdynia (Gotenhafen), near Gdansk (Danzig).

The final voyage of the Wilhelm Gustloff was during Operation Hannibal, the evacuation by sea from mid-January to May 1945 of German troops and civilians from Courland, East Prussia and the Polish Corridor, as the Red Army advanced. She was hit by three torpedoes from a Russian submarine in the Baltic on the night of January 30 1945 and sank in less than forty-five minutes. 9,400 people may have been killed. This would have been the largest loss of life in a single event in maritime history.

German soldiers wounded at Narvik being transported back to Germany on the Wilhelm Gustloff, July 1940; Bundesarchiv, Wikimedia Commons

___

If Gustloff was “the first Nazi leader to be assassinated by a Jew”, then the diplomat Ernst vom Rath was presumably the second.

A seventeen-year old Polish Jew, Herschel Grynszpan, shot him in the German embassy in Paris on November 7 1938. Vom Rath died two days later.

Vom Rath had been born in Frankfurt on June 3 1909. He joined the Nazi party in 1932, when he began his short career. Was it necessary to join in order to get on as a diplomat? Surely not in 1932. In April 1933 he had become a member of the Sturmabteilung, the party paramilitary. He was posted to Paris in 1935, after a posting in Bucharest.

Grynszpan had been born in Hanover in 1921, to parents who had left Poland in 1911. They became Polish citizens after the First World War, but remained in Germany.

When he left school, he was sent to a yeshiva in Frankfurt. After eleven months he left and returned to Hanover. He applied to emigrate to British Palestine, but the local Palestine office told him that he was too young.

He was sent to live with his uncle and aunt in Paris. There, he lived in a small Yiddish-speaking enclave of Polish Orthodox Jews and met few people outside it, learning only a few words of French. He spent his time trying, unsuccessfully, to get legal residency in France. His re-entry permit for Germany expired in April 1937 and his Polish passport expired in January 1938, leaving him without papers.

In July 1938, the Prefecture of Police ruled that Grynszpan had no basis for his request to stay in France, and in August he was ordered to leave. He had no permit for Germany and no desire to go there. In March, Poland had passed a law depriving Polish citizens who had lived continuously abroad for more than five years of their citizenship: this was intended to prevent the 70,000 Polish Jews living in Germany and Austria from returning to Poland, so that path was also closed. He continued to live in Paris illegally. He was a member of the Bundist youth movement Tsukunft.

In October, the Gestapo was ordered to arrest and deport all Polish Jews in Germany. Grynszpan’s parents were placed on a train heading for Poland. At the trial of Adolf Eichmann, Sendel Grynszpan, his father, recounted the events of the night of October 27: “They took us in police trucks, in prisoners’ lorries, about twenty men in each truck, and they took us to the railway station. The streets were full of people shouting: ‘Juden raus! Aus nach Palästina!’”

The Grynszpans and thousands of other Polish-Jewish deportees were left at the border and fed intermittently by the Polish Red Cross and Jewish welfare organizations. Berta sent a postcard to her brother Herschel in Paris, telling him what had happened and pleading with him to rescue them and arrange for them to emigrate to America – something totally beyond his powers.

Grynszpan made no attempt to resist or escape after shooting vom Rath, and identified himself correctly to the French police. He said that his motive had been to avenge the persecuted German Jews.

The Nazi reprisal on November 9-10 was Kristallnacht, the unprecedentedly violent series of pogroms against Jews in Germany and Austria which marked the beginning of the Holocaust. Grynszpan’s parents were not affected at the Polish border. In 1939 they escaped to the Soviet Union. After the war they emigrated to Israel.

On November 17, vom Rath was given a state funeral in Düsseldorf, attended by Hitler and Ribbentrop.

From November 1938 to June 1940 Grynszpan was kept in the Fresnes prison in Paris. He was still awaiting trial when the German army approached. The French authorities evacuated the inhabitants of the Paris prisons to the south. On July 18 the Germans captured him in Toulouse, drove him back to Paris, flew him to Berlin and locked him up in the Gestapo headquarters in Prinz-Albrecht-Strasse. He spent the remainder of his documented life in German custody, being shuttled between Moabit Prison in Berlin and the concentration camps at Sachsenhausen and Flossenbürg.

His trial was postponed indefinitely. His fate after September 1942 is unclear. He was still alive in late 1943 or early 1944, when he was interrogated by Adolf Eichmann at the Gestapo headquarters in Berlin. He may have been alive in Magdeburg prison in January 1945. He was declared legally dead by the West German government in 1960.

Was Grynszpan imitating Frankfurter? His motives may have been less simple than Frankfurter’s, as he may have had a sexual relationship with vom Rath.

Grynszpan’s story was the inspiration for Michael Tippett’s oratorio A Child of Our Time, composed between 1939 and ’41, with a libretto by Tippett, and performed in London in 1944. The title was taken from an antifascist novel by Ödön von Horváth. Sendel Grynszpan was present at the Israel premiere in 1952. It has often been performed in Germany. A German aunt of mine heard it in Stuttgart in her eighties and was moved by it. It recently had its premiere in Thailand.

Horváth had moved from Vienna to Paris after the Anschluss, but died on June 1 in the same year after being hit by a falling branch during a thunderstorm on the Champs-Élysées, opposite the Théâtre Marigny. His novel was also published in that year: was it posthumous? It had nothing to do with Grynszpan, of whom he had presumably not heard.

A documentary about A Child of Our Time starts here on YouTube.

Steal Away, a spiritual used in it, performed in Leicester in 1976 by the Leicestershire Schools Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Willi Gohl; the chorus includes singers from Germany and Israel

Grynszpan on November 8 1938; Bundesarchiv, Wikimedia Commons

Vom Rath; Spiegel archive

Vom Rath; Wikimedia Commons

Parag Khanna, Davos and diplomacy

January 27 2011

Parag Khanna has a Wall Street Journal blog piece about Davos as the stage of a new kind of diplomacy. He is fast and furious, as always, and sometimes sloppy.

His point is that medieval, or at least “pre-Westphalian”, diplomacy was a more fluid and informal affair, and closer to the spirit of Davos, than stiff modern nation-to-nation diplomacy.

Khanna takes up an idea the WEF has of itself as a nimble, networked institution, suited to dealing with modern complexity, and without a bureaucracy, and connects it, rightly or wrongly, with something pre-modern.

“The formalized, bureaucratized foreign ministry as we know it today is a legacy of French nobleman Cardinal de Richelieu, who as an adviser in the court of King Louis XIII established a Ministry of External Affairs in 1626 and dispatched the most extensive professional diplomatic corps in Europe.”

Let’s ignore the detail that Richelieu is “pre-Westphalian”. And Khanna needs to explain better what he means by medieval diplomacy and how it worked. Perhaps he does in his new book. Those things said, modern diplomacy was defined by international relations, and the world still tries to address complex multilateral problems in that way.

In the last year or two

“a global economic ‘G-2’ of the U.S. and China was proposed to sort out the imbalances between savings and deficit countries; the United Nations General Assembly devoted several days in September to the ‘Millennium Development Goals’ that address hunger, poverty, and other socio-economic ills; grand summits were held in Copenhagen and Cancun to craft a global climate treaty; and experts [Nicholas Kristof] spoke of a ‘Grand Bargain’ to freeze Iran’s nuclear program.”

But effective modern diplomacy is about public-private, as well as public-public, relationships – and

“‘private-private’ interactions which circumvent the state altogether. Think of the Environmental Defense Fund dealing directly with Wal-Mart to cut the company’s overall emissions by 20 million metric tons and install solar panels at 30 new locations. The diplomats at Cancun could only dream of such concrete measures.

“All three of these combinations of negotiating partners thrive at Davos and in all WEF activities, which range from mini-Davos-style regional conferences to year-round multi-stakeholder initiatives in public health, climate change, anti-corruption and other areas. The WEF does what no U.N. agency would ever do: allow ‘coalitions of the willing’ to organically ‘grow and go’ – incubating them but also quickly spinning them off into self-sustaining entities; but importantly also letting projects die that fail to attain sufficient support from participants. In this sense the WEF is both a space for convening but also a driver of new agendas.

“[...] The WEF’s founder, Swiss-German academic turned businessman Klaus Schwab, first declared a ‘Spirit of Davos’ in 1983, claiming that the WEF annual meeting had become ‘one of those increasingly rare international events where formality can be dispensed with, where personal contacts can be made, where new ideas can be tried out in complete freedom, where people are aware of the responsibilities involved in belonging to an international community, where we have time to look at really important issues rather than everyday pressures.’ [...]

“Surely Davos does not correct the ‘democracy deficit’ afflicting the world’s power structures, but what it does better than any other is correct the ‘diplomacy deficit,’ giving anyone it invites the right to represent themselves without interference or manipulation. NGOs speaking for the world’s oppressed, social entrepreneurs, and all manner of others seeking attention and funding get unobstructed access to the world’s richest companies, governments and philanthropists. Davos is where money and megaphones come together.

“[...]

“Davos is reflexively dismissed as ‘waste of time’ by those either not invited or not interested in making contributions to the world beyond their own bottom line. But with the G-20 far less than the sum of its parts and the U.S.-China ‘G-2’ more a nightmare scenario than solution, Davos represents a fluid yet far more resilient division of labor for the world. Nobody can stop the entropy that is diffusing power in the world. Instead, we need more Davos-like congresses to harness all the new power centers, from presidents to entrepreneurs to activists. [...]

“Global governance is not a thing, not a collection of formal institutions, not even a set of treaties. It is a process involving a far wider range of actors than have ever been party to global negotiations before. The sooner we look for new meta-scripts for regulating transnational activities and harnessing global resources to tackle local problems the better. Davos continues to be a good place to start.”

When Schwab made that statement in 1983, the WEF still saw itself primarily as a convener and facilitator. Only in the late ’90s did it begin to see itself as part of the flow of action. That slight shift has led to its remarkable development in the past ten years. It, too, at times has made the grand, empty pronouncements which characterise nation-to-nation diplomacy.

A sense of history is what distinguishes Khanna from most writers on international relations. It isn’t a marginal interest: he can’t keep away from it. His new book is How to Run the World: Charting the Course to the Next Renaissance. I commented on his The Second World: How Emerging Powers Are Redefining Global Competition in the Twenty-first Century here.

James Bond over Davos

January 27 2011

In the tenth Bond novel – buy it here – Bond is sent to meet his arch-enemy Ernst Blofeld in his hideout in Switzerland. He goes disguised as a genealogist from the College of Arms. He is met at Zurich airport by Irma Bunt and taken by helicopter to an unknown destination, which turns out to be a mountain-top clinic called Piz Gloria.

Pontresina is in the same canton as Davos, Graubünden.

“‘He leaned back in his seat, lit a cigarette, and looked out of the window. Yes, there was the Zürichersee to part. Their course was more or less east-south-east. They were flying at about 2,000 feet. And now there was the Wallensee. Bond, apparently uninterested, took the Daily Express out of his brief-case and turned to the sports pages. He read the paper from first to last, meticulously, every now and then casting a bored glance out of the window. The big range to port would be the Rhätikon Alps. That would be the railway junction of Landquart below them. They held their course up the valley of the Pratigau (sic). Would they keep on at Klosters or veer to starboard? Starboard it was. So! Up the Davos Valley! In a few minutes he would be flying over Tracy! A casual glance. Yes, there was Davos under its thin canopy of evening mist and smoke, while, above her, he was still in bright sunshine. At least she seemed to have had plenty of snow. Bond remembered the tremendous run down the Parsenn. Those had been the days! And now back on the old course again and giant peaks to right and left. This must be the Engadine. The Silvretta Group away to starboard, to port Piz Languard and, ahead, the Bernina range diving down like a vast ski-jump into Italy. That forest of lights away to starboard must be St Moritz! Now where? Bond buried himself in his paper. A slight veer to port. More lights. Pontresina? And now the radio began to crackle and the ‘Seat belts’ sign went up. Bond thought it time to express open interest. He gazed out. Below, the ground was mostly in darkness, but ahead the giant peaks were still golden in the dying sun. They were making straight for one of them, for a small plateau near its summit. There was a group of buildings from which golden wires swooped down into the darkness of the valley. A cable car, spangled in the sun, was creeping down. Now it had been swallowed up in the murk. The helicopter was still charging the side of the peak that towered above them. Now it was only a hundred feet up above the slope, coming in to the plateau and the buildings. The pilot’s arms moved on his joy stick. The machine pitched a little and slowed. The rotor arms swung languidly and then accelerated as the machine hovered and settled. There came a slight bump as the inflated rubber ‘floats’ met the snow, a dying whirr from the rotor and they were there.”

___

On Her Majesty’s Secret Service (1963).

Davos 2011: Saturday/Sunday

January 26 2011

Davos 2011: Tuesday/Wednesday

Davos 2011: Thursday

Davos 2011: Friday

Saturday, January 29

193: American Leadership: A Bipartisan Perspective

With a Republican-led Congress and a Democratic-led White House, what global issues will benefit from bipartisan support and American leadership?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Impact of fiscal austerity on foreign affairs
– Bipartisan international economic priorities
– Bipartisan international security priorities

Moderated by    GERGEN David R.     Director, Center for P…    Harvard Kennedy School     USA
Panellists    BROOKS David     Op-Ed Columnist    The New York Times     USA
Panellists    DIAZ-BALART Mario     Congressman from Flori…         USA
Panellists    HUFFINGTON Arianna     Co-Founder and Editor-…    Huffington Post     USA
Panellists    MALONEY Carolyn B.     Congresswoman from New…         USA

195: Redesigning the Board

How are the regulatory reforms around the world reshaping the role and expertise of corporate boards?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- New realities of board leadership
– Competencies needed for multinational corporations
– The role of the board in risk management
– Impact of private equity on corporate governance

Challenger    SERRA Davide     Founding and Managing …    Algebris Investments (UK) LLP     Italy
Moderated by    TYSON Laura D’Andrea     Professor of Business …    University of California, Berkeley     USA
Panellists    GOGEL Donald J.     President and Chief Ex…    Clayton, Dubilier & Rice LLC     USA
Panellists    HAYTHORNTHWAITE Richard     Chairman of the Board …    MasterCard Worldwide     United Kingdom
Panellists    KELLY Kevin     Chief Executive Officer    Heidrick & Struggles     USA
Panellists    VASELLA Daniel     Chairman of the Board    Novartis AG     Switzerland

196: Creating a Digital Nervous System

With over 30 billion networked devices in use, how are mobile and sensory technologies changing?

A visual experience across the following dimensions:

- Artificial intelligence and data management
– Infrastructure and supply chain resilience
– Efficient resource management

Moderated by    LASHINSKY Adam     Senior Editor-at-Large    Fortune Magazine     USA
Panellists    LOMBARD Didier     Chairman    France Telecom     France
Panellists    PENTLAND Alex     Toshiba Professor of M…    Massachusetts Institute of Technology…     USA

197: The Entrepreneurship Imperative

How can entrepreneurship education drive inclusive growth and job creation?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Entrepreneurship as a perquisite for inclusive growth
– Effective education programmes on entrepreneurship
– Role of business schools in developing entrepreneurs versus managers

Moderated by    FOSTER George     Paul L. and Phyllis Wa…    Stanford Graduate School of Business     Australia
Panellists    BOKOVA Irina Gueorguieva     Director-General, Unit…         Bulgaria
Panellists    GOPALAKRISHNAN Kris     Chief Executive Office…    Infosys Technologies Ltd     India
Panellists    VAN LEEUWEN Fred     General Secretary    Education International     Netherlands
Panellists    RUSH Sean C.     President and Chief Ex…    JA Worldwide     USA
Panellists    VARDANIAN Ruben K.     Chairman of the Board …    Troika Dialog Group     Russian Federation

198: The New Reality of Growing Up

How are children growing up in today’s new reality?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Learning and communicating
– Skills and capabilities
– Participation and global citizenship
– Technology and connectivity

Moderated by    TIAN WEI     Anchor and Host, CCTV …    China Central Television Internationa…     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    ARANGO NIMNICHT Marta     Founder and General Di…    International Center for Education an…     Colombia
Panellists    ARMSTRONG Peter     Director    OneWorld UK     United Kingdom
Panellists    ELIAS Christopher J.     President and Chief Ex…    PATH (Programme for Appropriate Techn…     USA
Panellists    PETRI GORNITZKA Charlotte     Director-General    Swedish International Development Coo…     Sweden
Panellists    TAPSCOTT Don     Chairman    Moxie Insight     Canada

199: IdeasLab with Global Changemakers: Strengthening Communities for a Shared Future

Presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on:

Idea 1: Empowering youth through positive thinking
Idea 2: Gender equality and the power of opportunity
Idea 3: Shared norms as a platform for peace
Idea 4: Promoting genuine dialogue through social media
Idea 5: Inspiring action through powerful imagery

Discussion Leaders    CHANDRASHEKAR Anjali     Global Changemaker    British Council     India
Discussion Leaders    CULLUM Daniel Joshua     Global Changemaker    British Council     New Zealand
Discussion Leaders    DOUGHERTY Trevor Richard     Global Changemaker    British Council     USA
Discussion Leaders    SHBETA Mai     Global Changemaker    British Council     Israel
Discussion Leaders    SILVA Raquel Helen     Global Changemaker    British Council     Brazil
Facilitated by    LUBLIN Nancy     Chief Executive Office…    Do Something.org     USA
Introduced by    ELLIS Sir Vernon J.     Chair    British Council     United Kingdom

200: IdeasLab with Harvard University: Breaking Education’s Boundaries

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on changes in:

Idea 1: Business education
Idea 2: Healthcare
Idea 3: Public policy
Idea 4: Design

Discussion Leaders    BLOOM David E.     Clarence James Gamble …    Harvard School of Public Health     USA
Discussion Leaders    ELLWOOD David T.     Dean    Harvard Kennedy School     USA
Discussion Leaders    MOSTAFAVI Mohsen     Dean    Harvard University Graduate School of…     USA
Discussion Leaders    NOHRIA Nitin     Dean    Harvard Business School     USA
Facilitated by    KOH Annie     Associate Professor of…    Singapore Management University     Singapore

201: Industries under Cybersiege: Time for Action

As industries suffer from rampant cybercrimes and data breaches, how can business effectively act against cyberattacks?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Emerging enterprise-level risks
– Innovative industry response mechanisms
– Investing in resiliency at the enterprise level

Moderated by    KIRKPATRICK David     Technology Columnist    The Daily Beast     USA
Panellists    ABRAHAM Magid     President, Chief Execu…    comScore Inc.     USA
Panellists    BERKELEY Alfred R.     Chairman    Pipeline Financial Group Inc.     USA
Panellists    FERTIK Michael     Founder and Chief Exec…    ReputationDefender Inc.     USA
Panellists    REDING Viviane     Vice-President and Com…         Luxembourg
Panellists    SAGAN Paul     Chief Executive Officer    Akamai Technologies Inc.

202: Creating Shared Norms: The Century’s Leadership Challenge

With divisive voices rising across all segments of society, how can leaders direct their constituents and communities towards shared norms?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Comparing 20th century and 21st century norms
– Bridging political divides across stakeholders
– Defining a new social contract
– Closing gender and generational gaps

Moderated by    KHAN Riz     Anchor    Al Jazeera     United Kingdom
Panellists    BURROW Sharan     General Secretary    International Trade Union Confederati…     Australia
Panellists    FAYYAD Salam     Prime Minister of the …
Panellists    GHOSN Carlos     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Renault-Nissan Alliance     France
Panellists    VAN ROMPUY Herman     President, European Co…         Belgium
Panellists    VEJJAJIVA Abhisit     Prime Minister of Thai…         Thailand

203: Keys to Competitiveness: Lessons from the Nordics

Nordic economies have consistently ranked among the most competitive globally – how can their policy innovations be applied in other countries?

This workshop will address the following dimensions:

- Investment and education strategies
– Innovations in gender policy
– Tax and labour policies

Challenger    SALA-I-MARTIN Xavier     Professor, Economics D…    Columbia University     Spain
Discussion Leaders    EKLUND Klas     Adjunct Professor of E…    University of Lund     Sweden
Discussion Leaders    GISKE Trond     Minister of Trade and …
Discussion Leaders    KAUPPI Piia-Noora     Managing Director    Federation of Finnish Financial Services     Finland
Discussion Leaders    KOSONEN Mikko     President    SITRA (Finnish Innovation Fund)     Finland
Discussion Leaders    SCHMIDT Waldemar     Chairman    Superfos A/S     Denmark
Facilitated by    ISHIKURA Yoko     Professor, Graduate Sc…    Hitotsubashi University     Japan

204: Managing the Basics: Water, Food and Energy

How should the related challenges of water, food and energy security be addressed to create holistic solutions?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Water management
– Agricultural reform
– Urban and industry use

Moderated by    CAMERON James     Founder and Vice-Chairman    Climate Change Capital     United Kingdom
Panellists    BRABECK-LETMATHE Peter     Chairman of the Board    Nestlé SA     Austria
Panellists    FAKHOURY Imad     Minister of State for …         Jordan
Panellists    HAN SEUNG-SOO     Chairman    Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI)     Republic of Korea
Panellists    STOCKING Barbara     Chief Executive    Oxfam GB     United Kingdom
Panellists    YERGIN Daniel     Chairman    IHS CERA     USA

205: Weak Signals of Coming Change

What are the troubling trends, shifting norms and emerging debates that could signal major changes ahead?

Discussion Leaders    BLOOMGARDEN Kathy     Chief Executive Officer    Ruder Finn Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    GOLDIN Ian     Director, Oxford Marti…    University of Oxford     South Africa
Discussion Leaders    HENDERSON Gideon     Co-Director, 21st Cent…    University of Oxford     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    KEMPE Frederick     President and Chief Ex…    The Atlantic Council of the United St…     USA
Discussion Leaders    MICHEL-KERJAN Erwann     Managing Director, Wha…    The Wharton School, University of Pen…     France
Discussion Leaders    PARKER Philip     Professor of Managemen…    INSEAD     USA
Discussion Leaders    ROTH Kenneth     Executive Director    Human Rights Watch     USA
Discussion Leaders    WHITE Aidan     General Secretary    International Federation of Journalists     Ireland
Discussion Leaders    WOLFE Nathan D.     Chief Executive Office…    Global Viral Forecasting     USA
Discussion Leaders    WU ZHIPAN     Executive Vice-Preside…    Peking University     People’s Republic of China
Facilitated by    NAÍM Moisés     Senior Associate, Inte…    Carnegie Endowment for International …     USA

194: China’s Image Abroad

Perceptions of China are shifting regionally and globally as a result of the country’s increasing economic and political profile.

In partnership with the World Economic Forum, CCTV hosts this debate on the international impact of China’s economic and foreign policies.

Moderated by    RUI CHENGGANG     Director and Anchor    China Central Television (CCTV)     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    LI DAOKUI     Director    Center for China in the World Economy…     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    RUDD Kevin     Minister of Foreign Af…         Australia
Panellists    SUMMERS Lawrence H.     Charles W. Eliot Unive…    Harvard University     USA
Panellists    ZHAO John     Chief Executive Officer    Hony Capital Ltd     USA

206: The Global Economic Outlook

What is the outlook for the global economy in 2011?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Managing macroeconomic imbalances
– Currency instability and monetary system reform
– Future role and agenda of the G20

Chaired by    WOLF Martin     Associate Editor and C…    The Financial Times     United Kingdom
Panellists    AHLUWALIA Montek Singh     Deputy Chairman, Plann…         India
Panellists    DIAMOND Robert E.     Chief Executive    Barclays PLC     USA
Panellists    LAGARDE Christine     Minister of Economy, F…         France
Panellists    OSBORNE George     Chancellor of the Exch…         United Kingdom
Panellists    SCHÄUBLE Wolfgang     Federal Minister of Fi…         Germany
Panellists    YU YONGDING     Senior Fellow, Institu…    Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (C…     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    ZOELLICK Robert B.     President, The World B…         USA

207: The Rise of Robo Sapiens

With advances in artificial intelligence and human-machine interfacing, how will robotics and biomimicry reshape our lives?

A visual experience across the following dimensions:

- Creative interaction
– Human augmentation

Challenger    VARDI Yossi     Chairman    International Technologies Ventures     Israel
Moderated by    TAN CHORH-CHUAN     President    National University of Singapore     Singapore
Panellists    DEL R. MILLÁN José     Defitech Foundation Ch…    Ecole Polytechnique Fédéral…     Spain
Panellists    WEINBERG Gil     Director, Georgia Tech…    Georgia Tech     Israel

208: Vision for Japan

[No description]

Introduced by    SCHWAB Klaus     Founder and Executive …    World Economic Forum     Germany
Special Address by    KAN Naoto     Prime Minister of Japan         Japan

209: Norwegian Buffet Lunch

[No description]

210: Sport: Bread and Games, Power and Money?

Sport is an organized, worldwide billion-dollar activity. It connects all classes, creates winners and losers, heroes and models, and releases enormous collective emotions. Outstanding performances are needed for the legitimization of political systems.

What is the importance of sport in our society? Can violence in connection with sport be avoided? Are outstanding performances possible without doping? What role do fame and money play?

Moderated by    HASLER Sonja     Journalist    Swiss Television SF
Panellists    GASSER Sandra     retired Swiss track an…         Switzerland
Panellists    GEBAUER Gunter     Professor of Philosoph…
Panellists    KAHN Oliver     Goalkeeper, German Nat…         Germany
Panellists    ZIMMERMANN David     Chief Executive Office…

211: Art and Illusion: Is Seeing Believing?

“He who wonders discovers that this in itself is wonder.” – M. C. Escher

In the era of computer technology, what does our brain perceive as natural fact, as art, and as illusion?

Moderated by    MOSTAFAVI Mohsen     Dean    Harvard University Graduate School of…     USA
Panellists    KATAOKA Drue     Artist, Japan         Japan
Panellists    LIEBERMAN Zachary     Artist and Computer Pr…    thesystemis     USA
Panellists    SECKEL Al     Cognitive Neuroscientist    Illusionworks LLC     USA
Panellists    TEMPEST Marco     Cyber Illusionist    Newmagic Communications Inc.     USA

213: Solving the Energy Efficiency Equation

What is holding back industry and government from achieving greater gains in energy efficiency?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Clean energy and technology developments
– Changes in industry practices
– Government and business relations
– Adapted policy frameworks

Moderated by    CHOPRA Tejpreet Singh     President and Chief Ex…    Bharat Light and Power     India
Panellists    DIPUO PETERS Elizabeth     Minister of Energy of …         South Africa
Panellists    KOO JAYOUNG     President and Chief Ex…    SK Innovation     Republic of Korea
Panellists    LAMPE-ÖNNERUD Christina     Founder and Chief Exec…    Boston-Power Inc.     Sweden
Panellists    SALZMAN Alan E.     Chief Executive Office…    VantagePoint Venture Partners     Canada
Panellists    TANAKA Nobuo     Executive Director, In…         Japan

231: Growth versus Austerity

How should nations develop their fiscal strategies to meet the twin challenges of economic growth and fiscal austerity?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Fiscal expansion versus contraction
– Labour market implications
– Cross-border effects

Moderated by    WILLIAMS Jon     World News Editor    BBC World News     United Kingdom
Panellists    FISCHER Stanley     Governor of the Centra…         Israel
Panellists    JOHNSON Robert A.     Executive Director    The Institute for New Economic Thinki…     USA
Panellists    KELLY Edmund F.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Liberty Mutual Group     USA
Panellists    SUMMERS Lawrence H.     Charles W. Eliot Unive…    Harvard University     USA
Panellists    WALDORFF Peter     General Secretary    Public Services International (PSI)     Denmark

214: IdeasLab on Improving Healthcare Delivery

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on:

Idea 1: Innovative models for healthcare delivery
Idea 2: Adapting delivery to chronic disease prevention
Idea 3: Financing healthcare innovations
Idea 4: Delivery models in emerging markets
Idea 5: Scaling innovation models and impact

Discussion Leaders    COLLINS Francis S.     Director    National Institutes of Health     USA
Discussion Leaders    DEES James Gregory     Professor, Practice of…    Duke University     USA
Discussion Leaders    DZAU Victor J.     President and Chief Ex…    Duke University Medical Center and He…     USA
Discussion Leaders    MANN Khawar     Partner, Head of Healt…    Apax Partners LLP     United Kingdom
Facilitated by    DUTTA Soumitra     The Roland Berger Chai…    INSEAD     India

215: Reinventing Japan

Faced with demographic and fiscal headwinds, how far can Japan go with its political, economic and societal transformation?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Political conditions necessary for major reforms
– Existing appetite for structural change
– New realities of regional and global competitiveness
– Policy priorities in 2011

Moderated by    KRISTOF Nicholas D.     Columnist    The New York Times     USA
Opening Remarks by    KAN Naoto     Prime Minister of Japan         Japan
Panellists    KAIEDA Banri     Minister of Economy, T…         Japan
Panellists    KOJIMA Yorihiko     Chairman of the Board    Mitsubishi Corporation     Japan

216: Responding to Catastrophe: The Emerging Role of Business

Given the rising frequency and cost – both financial and human – of natural disasters, how should the public and private sectors work together in disaster preparedness and response?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The limits of government and industry response mechanisms
– Redefining public-private collaboration
– Preparedness and long-term thinking

Moderated by    KUNREUTHER Howard     James G. Dinan Profess…    The Wharton School, University of Pen…     USA
Panellists    BERGMAN Stanley M.     Chairman of the Board …    Henry Schein Inc.     USA
Panellists    BRUTTO Daniel J.     President, UPS Interna…    UPS     USA
Panellists    FERNÁNDEZ Leonel     President of the Domin…         Dominican Republic
Panellists    GELETA Bekele     Secretary-General    International Federation of Red Cross…     Canada
Panellists    KARUNAKARA Unni     President    Médecins Sans Frontières In…     India

217: India’s Inclusive Growth Imperative

With more than half the population working in agriculture, India’s global growth story will in fact be determined by how it manages its rural roots.

In partnership with the World Economic Forum, NDTV hosts this debate on the increasing political and societal pressure to ensure that India’s future growth is indeed inclusive for all.

Moderated by    CHANDRA Vikram     Presenter and Editor    New Delhi Television (NDTV)     India
Panellists    CHIDAMBARAM Palaniappan     Minister of Home Affai…         India
Panellists    KOCHHAR Chanda     Managing Director and …    ICICI Bank Ltd     India
Panellists    SHETTY Salil     Secretary-General    Amnesty International     India
Panellists    ZHU Min     Special Adviser, Inter…         People’s Republic of China

219: Pundits, Professors and Their Predictions

The world’s leading opinion-shapers from the media and academia debate possible scenarios for 2011.

Among the scenarios to be discussed are:

- A global economic shock
– A regional security crisis
– A surprising political breakthrough
– A major normative shift

Moderated by    GOWING Nik     Main Presenter    BBC World News     United Kingdom
Panellists    LI DAOKUI     Director    Center for China in the World Economy…     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    MAHBUBANI Kishore     Dean    Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy     Singapore
Panellists    WOLF Martin     Associate Editor and C…    The Financial Times     United Kingdom
Panellists    ZAKARIA Fareed     Anchor, Fareed Zakaria…    CNN     USA
Panellists    ZEDILLO PONCE DE LEON …     Director    Yale Center for the Study of Globaliz…     Mexico

221: The Science of Mastering Emotions

As our brains are physiologically affected by emotional responses, how can we master emotions for a happier, less stressful and more productive life?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Insights from latest research
– Role of emotional intelligence
– Economic implications

Moderated by    SHAPIRO Daniel     Founder and Director, …    Harvard Law School     USA
Panellists    AEBISCHER Patrick     President    Ecole Polytechnique Fédéral…     Switzerland
Panellists    GOLEMAN Daniel     Co-Director, Consortiu…    Rutgers University     USA
Panellists    HALIFAX Roshi Joan     Founder, Abbot, Upaya …         USA
Panellists    SINGER Tania     Director, Department o…    Max-Planck Institute for Human Cognit…     Germany

222: The Reality of a Sustainable Lifestyle

A sustainable lifestyle is seen as a goal to strive for, but what does that sustainable lifestyle really look like around the world?

This WorkStudio will address the following dimensions:

- Lifestyle trends
– Shifts in behaviours and values

Discussion Leaders    ABRARY Phillip     President and Chief Ex…    Ostara Nutrient Recovery Technologies…     Canada
Discussion Leaders    BAYER Eben     Founder and Chief Exec…    Ecovative Design LLC     USA
Discussion Leaders    CHARTRES Richard     Bishop    The Diocese of London     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    CRAMER Aron     President and Chief Ex…    Business for Social Responsibility (BSR)     USA
Discussion Leaders    LASKEY Alex     President    OPOWER     USA
Discussion Leaders    MATTAR Helio     President and Board Me…    Akatu Institute for Conscious Consump…     Brazil
Discussion Leaders    OTTO-ZIMMERMANN Konrad     Secretary-General    ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustain…     Germany
Discussion Leaders    PAGET Reed     Director    Belu Water     USA
Facilitated by    KUHNDT Michael     Head    UNEP/Wuppertal Institute Collaboratin…     Germany

245: Tunisia: Tipping Point or Tsunami?

The political upheaval in Tunisia – the most urbanized and educated country in the Maghreb – is widely reported as a harbinger of change for the Middle East and North Africa.

What are the implications of the “Jasmine Revolution” and what will be the broader impact on the region?

Moderated by    DERGHAM Raghida     Senior Diplomatic Corr…    Al Hayat     USA
Panellists    ABDULLA-JANAHI Khalid     Honorary Chairman    Vision 3     Bahrain
Panellists    CHEIKH-ROUHOU Moncef     Professor of Internati…    HEC School of Management     Tunisia
Panellists    KHASHOGGI Jamal     General Manager and Ed…    Al Waleed 24 News Channel     Saudi Arabia

223: The Dividends of Longevity

How can we uncover the dividends of longevity by extending the role of retirees as producers and contributors to the social and economic wealth of nations?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Changing mindsets of both young and old
– Rethinking lifelong education and career paths
– Growing political and economic influence

Moderated by    BLOOM David E.     Clarence James Gamble …    Harvard School of Public Health     USA
Panellists    BLEWITT Richard     Chief Executive    HelpAge International     United Kingdom
Panellists    DARWAZEH Mazen S.     Chairman, MENA    Hikma Pharmaceuticals Limited     Jordan
Panellists    PENG XIZHE     Dean, School of Social…    Fudan University     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    SEIKE Atsushi     President    Keio University     Japan

224: Competing via Sustainability

How can companies turn sustainability into a competitive advantage?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Evolving from efficiency to innovation
– Creating a more resilient enterprise
– Winning in the consumer marketplace

Challenger    NAIDOO Kumi     Executive Director    Greenpeace International     South Africa
Moderated by    CRAMER Aron     President and Chief Ex…    Business for Social Responsibility (BSR)     USA
Panellists    BOLLAND Marc     Chief Executive    Marks & Spencer Plc     Netherlands
Panellists    ENGEL Ditlev     President and Chief Ex…    Vestas Wind Systems A/S     Denmark
Panellists    O’ROURKE Dara     Associate Professor, D…    University of California, Berkeley     USA
Panellists    SIJBESMA Feike     Chief Executive Office…    Royal DSM NV     Netherlands

225: IdeasLab with Technology Pioneers: Wicked Solutions for Wicked Problems

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on:

Idea 1: Mobile financial services
Idea 2: Development of affordable vaccines and therapies for diseases of poverty
Idea 3: Smart solutions for saving energy in buildings
Idea 4: Online disaster relief platform

Discussion Leaders    REALINI Carol L.     Executive Chairman    Obopay Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    ROTICH Juliana     Co-Founder    Ushahidi Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    SCHIERMEIER Andrew     Chief Executive Officer    Medicine in Need (MEND)     USA
Discussion Leaders    SURACE Kevin     President and Chief Ex…    Serious Materials     USA
Facilitated by    PASCALE Richard T.     Associate Fellow    Saïd Business School, University…     USA

226: Digital Art

Artists have sought innovative ways to fuse art, science and technology since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the 15th century.

How is technology used today to create compelling artworks in the artistic reality of the digital age?

Introduced by    KUZMANOVIC Maja     President    FoAM     Netherlands
Panellists    KOBLIN Aaron     Artist, USA         USA

227: Burnout – The Latest Fashion?

Everyone is talking about burnout, making this affliction suddenly socially acceptable. If striving for recognition and success is exaggerated and the balance between work, family life and leisure is lost, it can lead to the so-called burnout, a condition of emotional, mental and physical exhaustion.

Why do more and more people suffer from burnout? Why is it the latest fashion to be a burnout victim? Do the strong suffer from burnout, while the weak suffer from depression? How to survive a burnout? What responsibilities do employers have?

Moderated by    LEUTHARD Urs     Moderator    Swiss Television SF     Switzerland
Panellists    BRÜHLMANN Toni     Medical Director and C…         Switzerland
Panellists    HART Stephanie Pullings     Vice-President, Supply…    Nestle – Jenny Craig Inc.     USA
Panellists    JOSURAN Ruedi     Personal Coach for Cri…         Switzerland
Panellists    SCHÜPBACH Heinz     Director, School of Ap…

228: The Ownership Gap

With the rise of electronically traded funds and passive investing, how can the responsible ownership of corporations be ensured?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The impact of financial reforms on corporate governance
– The impact of new financial products on management behaviour
– Closing the growing gap between ownership and control

Moderated by    MURRAY Alan     Deputy Managing Editor…    The Wall Street Journal     USA
Panellists    ALLAIRE Yvan     Chair of the Board of …    Institute for Governance of Public an…     Canada
Panellists    EHNES Jack     Chief Executive Officer    California State Teachers’ Retirement…     USA
Panellists    HILB Martin     Managing Director    Institute for Leadership and Human Re…     Switzerland

229: The Next Map of Global Growth

How will new transport routes and transportation centres alter trade flows, development patterns and even geopolitics?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Regional integration trends
– Consumption patterns and investment opportunities
– Global value chains
– Business opportunities in exporting countries and key trade routes

Moderated by    KHANNA Parag     Director, Global Gover…    New America Foundation     USA
Panellists    ANDERSEN Nils Smedegaard     Group Chief Executive …    A.P. Møller-Maersk AS     Denmark
Panellists    EMERSON Craig     Minister of Trade of A…         Australia
Panellists    LAMY Pascal     Director-General, Worl…         France
Panellists    AL SALEH Essa     President and Chief Ex…    Agility     USA
Panellists    WEISSER Alberto     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Bunge Limited     Germany

230: The South to South Shift

Developing economies are enjoying the highest rates of income growth, but how will this growth reshape the dynamics of South-South trade and investment, where barriers remain higher than in the rest of the world?

In partnership with the World Economic Forum, CNN hosts this live debate on the south to south shift.

Moderated by    DEFTERIOS John K.     Anchor, CNN Marketplac…    CNN International     USA
Panellists    KELIMBETOV Kairat     Chief Executive Officer    Samruk-Kazyna JSC     Kazakhstan
Panellists    LARRAÍN BASCUÑÁN Felipe     Minister of Finance of…         Chile
Panellists    AL MADY Mohammed H.     Vice-Chairman and Chie…    Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (S…     Saudi Arabia
Panellists    PANGESTU Mari Elka     Minister of Trade of I…         Indonesia
Panellists    RACHID Rachid Mohamed     Minister of Trade and …         Egypt
Panellists    SHARMA Anand     Minister of Commerce a…         India

242: Governing One-sixth of the World’s Citizens

As the second most populous country with over 2,000 ethnic groups, what are India’s shared norms with respect to its governance and development?

Moderated by    ELLIOTT Michael J.     Editor, Time Internati…    Time Magazine     USA
Panellists    AHLUWALIA Montek Singh     Deputy Chairman, Plann…         India
Panellists    BHARTIA Hari S.     Co-Chairman and Managi…    Jubilant Bhartia Group     India
Panellists    BHASIN Pramod     President and Chief Ex…    Genpact Ltd     India
Panellists    CHIDAMBARAM Palaniappan     Minister of Home Affai…         India
Panellists    KOTHARI Brij     Director    PlanetRead     India
Panellists    NILEKANI Rohini     Chairperson    Arghyam Foundation     India

232: Leading within Complexity

With surveys highlighting complexity as among the top challenges for CEOs, what are the skills needed to lead in an era where complexity is the norm?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Emotional intelligence
– Stakeholder theory and interdependency
– Organizational culture

Moderated by    USEEM Michael     Professor of Managemen…    The Wharton School, University of Pen…     USA
Panellists    GOLEMAN Daniel     Co-Director, Consortiu…    Rutgers University     USA
Panellists    GRIMSSON Olafur Ragnar     President of Iceland         Iceland
Panellists    MITTAL Vineet     Co-Founder and Managin…    Welspun Energy     India
Panellists    PROBST Gilbert J. B.     Managing Director and …    World Economic Forum     Switzerland
Panellists    SCHARMER C. Otto     Senior Lecturer, Organ…    MIT – Sloan School of Management     Germany
Panellists    WHITBREAD Jasmine     Chief Executive Officer    Save the Children International     United Kingdom

218: Building a Civilized Workplace: The “No Jerks” Rule

“Jerks” – people who demean co-workers and focus their aggression on the less powerful – poison the office, decrease productivity and lead to the loss of good people.

How can companies build a more civilized workplace that is free of jerks?

Panellists    SUTTON Robert I.     Professor, Management …    Stanford University     USA

233: Open Forum Concluding Remarks

[No description]

241: WHAT IF: there is reunification on the Korean Peninsula?

The assumption remains that the peaceful reunification of South and North Korea will not occur in this decade.

But if the unimaginable became the inevitable, then what would be the regional and global impact of a reunified Korea?

Moderated by    MAHBUBANI Kishore     Dean    Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy     Singapore
Panellists    CRONIN Patrick M.     Senior Adviser and Sen…    The Center for a New American Securit…     USA
Panellists    KAWAGUCHI Yoriko     Member of the House of…         Japan
Panellists    KIM SAM-WHAN     Very Reverend    Myungsung Presbyterian Church     Republic of Korea
Panellists    MOON CHUNG-IN     Professor of Political…    Yonsei University     Republic of Korea
Panellists    YAN XUETONG     Dean, Institute of Int…    Tsinghua University     People’s Republic of China

234: Cultural Soirée

Organized under the auspices of the Government of India and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), the evening will showcase Indian performing arts, fashion and cuisine.

___

Sunday, January 30

235: The Davos Debrief: Policy Priorities

Global Agenda Council members summarize and synthesize the key insights from the Annual Meeting 2011 related to public policy and economic priorities in the new year.

Moderated by    GOWING Nik     Main Presenter    BBC World News     United Kingdom
Panellists    BLOOM David E.     Clarence James Gamble …    Harvard School of Public Health     USA
Panellists    GURRY Francis     Director-General, Worl…         Australia
Panellists    PAPADEMETRIOU Demetrio…     President and Board Me…    Migration Policy Institute (MPI)     USA
Panellists    WOODS Ngaire     Professor of Internati…    University of Oxford     United Kingdom
Panellists    ZHU Min     Special Adviser, Inter…         People’s Republic of China

236: The Davos Debrief: Global Risks

Global Agenda Council members summarize and synthesize the key insights from the Annual Meeting 2011 related to mitigating and managing global risks.

Moderated by    BREMMER Ian     President    Eurasia Group     USA
Panellists    CRONIN Audrey Kurth     Professor of Strategy    U.S. National War College     USA
Panellists    GUÉHENNO Jean-Marie     Arnold Saltzman Profes…    Columbia University     France
Panellists    KUNREUTHER Howard     James G. Dinan Profess…    The Wharton School, University of Pen…     USA
Panellists    MAYNARD Andrew D.     Director, Risk Science…    University of Michigan     United Kingdom
Panellists    ZITTRAIN Jonathan     Professor of Law and P…    Harvard University     USA

237: The Global Agenda in 2011

The Chairs of the Annual Meeting will debate the emerging issues of 2011 and the implications for the global economy and for their industries.

This session is developed in partnership with CNBC.

Co-Chairs    BULCKE Paul     Chief Executive Officer    Nestlé SA     Belgium
Co-Chairs    KOCHHAR Chanda     Managing Director and …    ICICI Bank Ltd     India
Co-Chairs    KOJIMA Yorihiko     Chairman of the Board    Mitsubishi Corporation     Japan
Co-Chairs    KULLMAN Ellen     Chair of the Board and…    DuPont     USA
Co-Chairs    WALLENBERG Jacob     Chairman    Investor AB     Sweden
Co-Chairs    WEI JIAFU     Group President and Ch…    China Ocean Shipping Group Co. (COSCO)     People’s Republic of China
Moderated by    CUTMORE Geoff     Anchor    CNBC     United Kingdom

238: Inspired for a Lifetime

[No description]

Chaired by    SCHWAB Klaus     Founder and Executive …         Germany
Panellists    CULLUM Daniel Joshua     Global Changemaker    British Council     New Zealand
Panellists    LAGARDE Christine     Minister of Economy, F…         France
Panellists    SILVA Raquel Helen     Global Changemaker    British Council     Brazil
Panellists    VUJICIC Nick     Founder and President    Life Without Limbs     Australia

239: Schatzalp

Join the traditional farewell buffet lunch at the Hotel Schatzalp, situated in a stunning location high above Davos. The Schatzalp is accessible by funicular railway from the centre of town, just a short walk or bus ride from the Congress Centre.

___

Schatzalp lunch, c 2000

Davos 2011: Friday

January 25 2011

Davos 2011: Tuesday/Wednesday

Davos 2011: Thursday

Only a few of these are plenaries. Sessions with lunches and dinners, some around a single table, used to be, I assume still are, deployed across a dozen or more hotels. Working out how to get to them was either part of the fun of Davos or a waste of time, depending on your mood.

Friday, January 28

125: Redeploying Development Finance

In the absence of private lending, national and regional development banks played a key role during the financial crisis.

How can they now strengthen the international financial architecture?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Lessons from the financial crisis
– Mandate of development banks
– New development paradigms

Moderated by    HALBERSTADT Victor     Professor of Public Ec…    Leiden University     Netherlands
Panellists    BHATT Om Prakash     Chairman    State Bank of India     India
Panellists    COUTINHO Luciano     President    Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES)     Brazil
Panellists    DMITRIEV Vladimir A.     Chairman    State Corporation Bank for Developmen…     Russian Federation
Panellists    KURODA Haruhiko     President, Asian Devel…         Japan
Panellists    MIROW Thomas     President, European Ba…         Germany
Panellists    NCUBE Mthuli     Chief Economist    African Development Bank (AfDB)     South Africa

126: Diplomacy in the Digital Age

With Facebook, Twitter and WikiLeaks reshaping international relations, what are the new norms of modern diplomacy?

This workshop will address the following dimensions:

- Influence of social media
– Challenge of digital misinformation
– Real-time diplomacy

Discussion Leaders    HAASS Richard N.     President    Council on Foreign Relations     USA
Discussion Leaders    MULIANA NATALEGAWA Rad…     Minister of Foreign Af…         Indonesia
Discussion Leaders    SIKORSKI Radoslaw Tomasz     Minister of Foreign Af…         Poland
Discussion Leaders    SPINDELEGGER Michael     Federal Minister of Eu…         Austria
Discussion Leaders    SULZBERGER Arthur     Chairman and Publisher    The New York Times     USA
Facilitated by    GOWING Nik     Main Presenter    BBC World News     United Kingdom

127: Rebalancing the Global Economy

How should macroeconomic imbalances be managed at a global level?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Limitations of the current system
– Lessons from past crises
– Strategies for policy coordination
– Future role of the G20

Moderated by    RAMO Joshua Cooper     Managing Director    Kissinger Associates Inc.     USA
Panellists    BERGSTEN C. Fred     Director    The Peterson Institute for Internatio…     USA
Panellists    FERGUSON Niall     Professor of History    Harvard University     United Kingdom
Panellists    LI DAOKUI     Director    Center for China in the World Economy…     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    ROUBINI Nouriel     Professor of Economics…    New York University     USA
Panellists    YU YONGDING     Senior Fellow, Institu…    Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (C…     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    ZHANG WEIYING     Professor of Economics    Peking University     People’s Republic of China

128: The Future of Investing

How will investors deploy capital in the post-crisis world?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Changing mindsets and new strategies
– Asset classes and allocation
– Regional diversification

Challenger    SCARAMUCCI Anthony     Managing Partner    Skybridge Capital     USA
Moderated by    LERNER Josh     Jacob H. Schiff Profes…    Harvard Business School     USA
Panellists    NAQVI Arif M.     Founder and Group Chie…    Abraaj Capital Limited     Pakistan
Panellists    RUBENSTEIN David M.     Co-Founder and Managin…    The Carlyle Group     USA
Panellists    SENN Martin     Group Chief Executive …    Zurich Financial Services     Switzerland
Panellists    TAN KENG-YAM Tony     Deputy Chairman and Ex…         Singapore

129: Handling Hyper-connectivity

How should governments and businesses operate in a hyper-connected world?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Emerging risks
– Societal impact
– Managing hyper-connectivity
– Effect on business and government relations

Moderated by    GADIESH Orit     Chairman    Bain & Company Inc.     USA
Panellists    CHAMBERS John T.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Cisco     USA
Panellists    GLOCER Thomas H.     Chief Executive Officer    Thomson Reuters     USA
Panellists    KROES Neelie     Vice-President and Com…         Netherlands
Panellists    SANDBERG Sheryl     Chief Operating Officer    Facebook Inc.     USA
Panellists    SVANBERG Carl-Henric     Chairman    BP Plc     Sweden

130: IdeasLab on Haiti: Building Back Better

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions with Social Entrepreneurs, Technology Pioneers and civil society leaders will focus on how to:

Idea 1: Support SMEs and provide micro-insurance to protect the poorest Haitians
Idea 2: Meet the essential need for pathogen-free water
Idea 3: Move from temporary shelter into permanent housing
Idea 4: Employ mobile banking as a tool for financial inclusion
Idea 5: Jumpstart the Haitian economy through social business

Discussion Leaders    CLARK Wendy     Senior Vice-President,…    The Coca-Cola Company     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    DALY Luke J.     Founder and Chief Exec…    Ferrate Treatment Technologies     USA
Discussion Leaders    HASTINGS Anne     Managing Director    Fonkoze     USA
Discussion Leaders    KENY-GUYER Neal     Chief Executive Officer    MercyCorps     USA
Discussion Leaders    SINCLAIR Cameron     Co-Founder and Executi…    Architecture for Humanity     United Kingdom
Facilitated by    PASCALE Richard T.     Associate Fellow    Saïd Business School, University…     USA
Opening Remarks by    MORENO Luis A.     President, Inter-Ameri…         Colombia

131: IdeasLab with the University of Pennsylvania: Ethical Norms in a New Reality

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on the impact of evolving ethics of:

Idea 1: Business
Idea 2: Law
Idea 3: Medicine
Idea 4: Neuroscience

Discussion Leaders    DONALDSON Thomas     Professor of Business …    The Wharton School, University of Pen…     USA
Discussion Leaders    MORENO Jonathan     David and Lyn Silfen U…    University of Pennsylvania     USA
Discussion Leaders    ROBERTSON Diana     Professor of Social Re…    The Wharton School, University of Pen…     USA
Discussion Leaders    ROCK Edward B.     Professor of Business Law    University of Pennsylvania     USA
Facilitated by    IBARRA Herminia     The Cora Chaired Profe…    INSEAD     USA
Introduced by    GUTMANN Amy     President    University of Pennsylvania     USA

132: Lessons in Risk-taking

Imagine climbing the highest peak on each continent and skiing to the North and South Poles.

Alison Levine, one of the elite explorers to have successfully risen to this challenge, will share experiences in risk-taking that apply in the board room and on Mount Everest.

Introduced by    USEEM Michael     Professor of Managemen…    The Wharton School, University of Pen…     USA
Panellists    LEVINE Alison     Mountaineer and President    DareDevil Strategies     USA

133: The Leadership Voice

As the human voice has a range of three to four octaves, how can leaders use this range to enhance their communication with the necessary openness, authenticity, clarity and authority?

This WorkStudio will address the following dimensions:

- Breathing and relaxation
– Vocal strength and resonance
– Personal presence

Facilitated by    LINKLATER Kristin     Professor of Theatre A…    Columbia University     United Kingdom
Introduced by    BECKER Carol     Dean, School of the Arts    Columbia University     USA

134: The Science We Need

Every generation has its defining scientific challenges, such as preventing polio or landing on the moon.

What are the inspiring scientific challenges of the 21st century?

Moderated by    SCHOENDORF Joseph P.     Partner    Accel Partners     USA
Panellists    ANANTH M. S.     Director    Indian Institute of Technology Madras     India
Panellists    HOCKFIELD Susan     President    Massachusetts Institute of Technology…     USA
Panellists    JACKSON Shirley Ann     President    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)     USA
Panellists    TAN CHORH-CHUAN     President    National University of Singapore     Singapore

135: Redefining Sustainable Development

How can sustainable development become a driver of inclusive growth?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- New growth paradigms
– Systemic approaches
– The role of business

Moderated by    FRIEDMAN Thomas L.     Columnist, Foreign Aff…    The New York Times     USA
Opening Address by    BAN KI-MOON     Secretary-General, Uni…         Republic of Korea
Panellists    BALSILLIE Jim     Chairman and Co-Chief …    Research in Motion Limited     Canada
Panellists    CALDERÓN Felipe     President of Mexico         Mexico
Panellists    DUKE Mike     President and Chief Ex…    Wal-Mart Stores Inc.     USA
Panellists    GATES William H.     Co-Chair    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation     USA
Panellists    HALONEN Tarja     President of Finland         Finland
Panellists    YUDHOYONO Susilo Bambang     President of Indonesia…         Indonesia

136: Modernity: A Nordic Interpretation

Nordic art and design is often viewed as the cutting edge of modernity.

Poul Erik Tøjner, Director of the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art in Denmark, will explore Nordic interpretations of modernity in art and design.

Introduced by    LOADES Emma     Director, Programme De…    World Economic Forum     United Kingdom
Panellists    TØJNER Poul Erik     Director    Louisiana Museum of Modern Art     Denmark

137: The Creative Workplace

How can organizations redesign their work environments to stimulate ideas, foster innovation and harness the creative potential of their workforce?

A visual exploration of:

- A star chef’s kitchen
– An innovation and design firm
– An online collaboration platform

Moderated by    SAWYER Keith     Associate Professor    Washington University     USA
Panellists    BENIOFF Marc R.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Salesforce.com     USA
Panellists    BROWN Tim     Chief Executive Officer    IDEO LLC     United Kingdom
Panellists    SAMUELSSON Marcus     Chef and Owner, Red Ro…    Marcus Samuelsson Group     USA

246: Emotional Synchronicity

“They always say time changes things, but you actually have to change them yourself.” – Andy Warhol

Artist Olafur Eliasson shares his thoughts on how art touches people’s emotions and can provoke change.

Moderated by    ANTONELLI Paola     Senior Curator, Depart…    Museum of Modern Art     Italy
Panellists    ELIASSON Olafur     Artist    Studio Olafur Eliasson     Iceland

243: Making Poverty History

The film Slumdog Millionaire is globally renowned for its moving portrayal of street children in India.

A. R. Rahman, the award-winning composer of the film score, describes how his work inspires him, and his foundation’s goals to bring hope to underprivileged children.

138: Special Address

Introduced by    SCHWAB Klaus     Founder and Executive …    World Economic Forum     Germany
Special Address by    CAMERON David     Prime Minister of the …         United Kingdom

212: Brazil Outlook

With a new government in place, what are the country’s domestic and international priorities in 2011?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Policy continuity versus new realities
– Macroeconomic challenges
– Foreign policy agenda

Moderated by    NAÍM Moisés     Senior Associate, Inte…    Carnegie Endowment for International …     USA
Panellists    DE AGUIAR PATRIOTA Ant…     Minister of External R…         Brazil
Panellists    COUTINHO Luciano     President    Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES)     Brazil
Panellists    FLEURY CURADO Frederico     President and Chief Ex…    EMBRAER S.A.     Brazil
Panellists    TOMBINI Alexandre     President of the Centr…         Brazil
Panellists    VILLELA Renato Augusto     Secretary of State for…         Brazil

244: Priorities for the US Economy

What are domestic and global policy priorities for the US in 2011?

Chaired by    ROSE Charlie     Anchor, Executive Prod…    The Charlie Rose Show     USA
Conversation with    GEITHNER Timothy F.     US Secretary of the Tr…         USA

140: Art Walk

This guided tour will offer an introduction to contemporary Indian art, led by the curators of the art exhibition in the Congress Centre, and explore the social consciousness behind several additional artworks.

Please meet at the Arts and Culture Lounge on the Promenade level of the Congress Centre.

Introduced by    ZWINGGI Alois     Managing Director, Res…    World Economic Forum     Switzerland
Panellists    BIRTWISTLE Silas     Artist, A Table from t…         United Kingdom

141: From Development to Business Case – Africa’s Frontier Markets

As the African continent enters a new wave of growth, what sectors and markets pose the greatest opportunities for regional and multinational enterprises?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Management of its natural wealth
– Catering to a rising middle class
– Mitigating business risks and seizing opportunities

Discussion Leaders    ASHENAFI Tewodros     Chairman and Chief Exe…    SouthWest Energy (HK) Ltd     Ethiopia
Discussion Leaders    DAVIES Martyn     Chief Executive Officer    Frontier Advisory Pty Ltd     South Africa
Discussion Leaders    MACK Michael     Chief Executive Officer    Syngenta International AG     USA
Discussion Leaders    NWANZE Kanayo     President, Internation…         Nigeria
Moderated by    MAASDORP Leslie W.     President, Southern Af…    Bank of America Merrill Lynch     South Africa

142: Delivering Bio-driven Development

How can bio-based technologies change the future of development?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The economics of rural-urban life
– Adapting to climate change
– The role of business and government

Challenger    PAGET Reed     Director    Belu Water     USA
Discussion Leaders    FAN SHENGGEN     Director-General    International Food Policy Research In…     People’s Republic of China
Discussion Leaders    KULLMAN Ellen     Chair of the Board and…    DuPont     USA
Discussion Leaders    RIISGAARD Steen     President and Chief Ex…    Novozymes A/S     Denmark
Discussion Leaders    WILLIS Kathy     Director, Biodiversity…    University of Oxford     United Kingdom
Moderated by    KING David     Director    Smith School of Enterprise and the En…     United Kingdom

143: The Cancer Epidemic

What are the underlying causes of the cancer epidemic and how can they be addressed?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Latest research and new treatments
– Prevention through lifestyle and education
– Access to medical care

Discussion Leaders    AGUS David     Professor of Medicine …    University of Southern California (USC)     USA
Discussion Leaders    COLLINS Francis S.     Director    National Institutes of Health     USA
Discussion Leaders    KHOURI Nagi F.     Director, Division of …    The Johns Hopkins Avon Foundation Bre…     USA
Discussion Leaders    MENDELSOHN John     President    The University of Texas M. D. Anderso…     USA
Discussion Leaders    DE LOS PINOS Elisabeth     Founder and Chief Exec…    Aura Biosciences Inc.     Spain
Discussion Leaders    SCHATZ Peer M.     Chief Executive Officer    QIAGEN GmbH     Switzerland
Moderated by    DRAZEN Jeffrey M.     Editor-in-Chief    The New England Journal of Medicine     USA

144: Managing Global Capital Flows

How can emerging markets guard against excessive capital flows?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The impact of US and Chinese policies
– Rethinking capital controls
– The role of the G20

Discussion Leaders    BLEJER Mario I.     Adjunct Professor of F…    Universidad Torcuato di Tella     Argentina
Discussion Leaders    GORDHAN Pravin     Minister of Finance of…         South Africa
Discussion Leaders    LU Kevin     Regional Director, Asi…    Multilateral Investment Guarantee Age…     USA
Discussion Leaders    ROUBINI Nouriel     Professor of Economics…    New York University     USA
Discussion Leaders    SAHENK Ferit F.     Chairman    Dogus Group     Turkey
Discussion Leaders    TOMBINI Alexandre     President of the Centr…         Brazil
Moderated by    DAVIES Howard     Director    London School of Economics and Politi…     United Kingdom

145: The Economics of Cloud Computing

How can cloud computing enhance economic growth and social inclusion globally?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Applications in health, finance and education
– Enabling policies and regulations
– Data security concerns

Discussion Leaders    BECKETT Charlie     Director, POLIS    London School of Economics and Politi…     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    CILIV Sureyya     Chief Executive Officer    Turkcell Iletisim Hizmetleri AS     Turkey
Discussion Leaders    DUTTA Soumitra     The Roland Berger Chai…    INSEAD     India
Discussion Leaders    LEIBOWITZ Jon     Chairman, Federal Trad…         USA
Discussion Leaders    MANER Tarkan     President and Chief Ex…    Wyse Technology Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    MCCRACKEN William E.     Chief Executive Officer    CA Technologies     USA
Discussion Leaders    ST AMOUR Lynn     President and Chief Ex…    The Internet Society (ISOC)     USA
Moderated by    ZITTRAIN Jonathan     Professor of Law and P…    Harvard University     USA

146: Price Volatility: The Commodity Challenge

Given the global market for commodities, how can extreme price volatility be mitigated to ensure a stable economic recovery?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Changing role of derivative markets
– Challenge of natural resource security
– The G20 agenda

Discussion Leaders    BOUTROS-GHALI Youssef     Minister of Finance of…         Egypt
Discussion Leaders    DUNAND Marco     Co-Founder and Chairman    Mercuria Energy Group Ltd     Switzerland
Discussion Leaders    FINK Joshua     Chief Executive Officer    Enso Capital Management LLC     USA
Discussion Leaders    ZEIGLER Robert S.     Director-General    International Rice Research Institute…     USA
Moderated by    BECKETT Tanya     Presenter    BBC World News     United Kingdom

147: Financial Inclusion: Beyond Microfinance

How do we establish new and scalable ways of providing key financial services to the underserved?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The recent controversy over microfinance
– The challenge of scaling new models and services
– Consumer protection and government regulation

Discussion Leaders    BAKSAAS Jon Fredrik     President and Chief Ex…    Telenor ASA     Norway
Discussion Leaders    DAVIS Geoff     Chief Executive Officer    White Hat Ventures     USA
Discussion Leaders    HASTINGS Anne     Managing Director    Fonkoze     USA
Discussion Leaders    KENY-GUYER Neal     Chief Executive Officer    MercyCorps     USA
Discussion Leaders    KYTE Rachel     Vice-President    International Finance Corporation (IFC)     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    PANDIT Vikram     Chief Executive Officer    Citi     USA
Moderated by    KRISTOF Nicholas D.     Columnist    The New York Times     USA

148: India-China: Great Friends or Great Rivals?

What are the major strategic issues between India and China?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Historical political relationship
– Evolution of trade and investment ties
– Spheres of cooperation and competition

Discussion Leaders    BHARTIA Shobhana     Member of Parliament; …    HT Media Limited     India
Discussion Leaders    KALYANI Baba N.     Chairman and Managing …    Bharat Forge Ltd     India
Discussion Leaders    LIU Peggy     Chairperson    JUCCCE     USA
Discussion Leaders    PENG XIZHE     Dean, School of Social…    Fudan University     People’s Republic of China
Discussion Leaders    SINGH Harbir     Professor of Management    The Wharton School, University of Pen…     USA
Discussion Leaders    TIAN WEI     Anchor and Host, CCTV …    China Central Television Internationa…     People’s Republic of China
Moderated by    NIBLETT Robin     Director    Chatham House     United Kingdom

149: Managing the Oceans’ Potential

How can the economic potential of oceans be fulfilled in a sustainable manner?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Measures for better management
– National responsibility and international cooperation
– Role of business

Discussion Leaders    GRIMSSON Olafur Ragnar     President of Iceland         Iceland
Discussion Leaders    HAYASHI Yasuo     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Japan External Trade Organization (JE…     Japan
Discussion Leaders    LUBCHENCO Jane     Administrator, Nationa…         USA
Discussion Leaders    OLSSON Dan Sten     Chief Executive Officer    Stena AB     Sweden
Discussion Leaders    STORE Jonas Gahr     Minister of Foreign Af…         Norway
Moderated by    LEAPE Jim     Director-General    WWF – World Wide Fund for Nature     USA

150: Can We Fight Corruption?

In many countries, nothing moves without bribery or corruption. International organizations, governments and companies condemn corruption; however, it spreads.

What strategy is effective against corruption? How can companies avoid corruption without having to accept losses? What effect does corruption have on the economy? Is corruption influenced by our society and culture?

Moderated by    KLAPPROTH Stephan     Anchor, Ten O’Clock News    Swiss Television SF     Switzerland
Panellists    BAKKER Peter     Chief Executive Officer    TNT     Netherlands
Panellists    HU SHULI     Editor-in-Chief    Caixin Media     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    LABELLE Huguette     Chair    Transparency International     Canada
Panellists    PIETH Mark     Professor of Criminal …    University of Basel     Switzerland

151: The Rail Renaissance

With increasing investment in high-speed and freight rail projects, how will a “rail renaissance” reshape economic development in industrialized and developing countries?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Infrastructure and technology challenges
– Impact on regional development and economic integration
– National and regional opportunities

Discussion Leaders    KING Wallace     Chief Executive Officer    Leighton Holdings Ltd     Australia
Discussion Leaders    KURODA Haruhiko     President, Asian Devel…         Japan
Discussion Leaders    MCKINNON Alan     Director, Logistics Re…    Heriot-Watt University     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    MOYO Nkosana D.     Vice-President and Chi…    African Development Bank (AfDB)     Zimbabwe
Discussion Leaders    RUSSWURM Siegfried     Member of the Managing…    Siemens AG     Germany
Moderated by    ABRAHAM Reuben     Executive Director, Ce…    Indian School of Business     India

152: Responsible Investing

With studies showing that responsible investing provides superior risk-adjusted returns, how can it become the norm rather than a niche?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Post-crisis principles of investing
– Rethinking return criteria
– Real economy perspectives

Discussion Leaders    ACHLEITNER Paul     Member of the Board of…    Allianz SE     Austria
Discussion Leaders    LIGTERINGEN Ernst     Chief Executive    Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)     Netherlands
Discussion Leaders    NIINAMI Takeshi     President and Chief Ex…    Lawson Inc.     Japan
Moderated by    SCHLESINGER David     Editor-in-Chief    Thomson Reuters     USA

153: Enabling the Globalization of Talent

As demographic and migration-related challenges become acute, how should government and business collaborate on the issue of talent mobility?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Labour market challenges globally
– National and regional policy responses
– Public-private sector solutions

Discussion Leaders    ANDOR László     Commissioner, Employme…         Hungary
Discussion Leaders    CULLUM Daniel Joshua     Global Changemaker    British Council     New Zealand
Discussion Leaders    MORETTI POLEGATO Mario     Chairman    Geox SpA     Italy
Discussion Leaders    SÉGOL Bernadette     Incoming Secretary-Gen…    European Trade Union Confederation (E…     France
Discussion Leaders    SWING William Lacy     Director-General, Inte…         USA
Moderated by    SNOWER Dennis J.     President    The Kiel Institute for the World Economy     USA

154: Young People versus Old Models

How are the values and behaviours of a younger generation reshaping consumption patterns and business models?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Changing values and incentives
– Influence of social media
– Shifting consumption norms

Discussion Leaders    DOUGHERTY Trevor Richard     Global Changemaker    British Council     USA
Discussion Leaders    FRIES Michael T.     President and Chief Ex…    Liberty Global Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    GUANAES Nizan     Chairman    Grupo ABC     Brazil
Discussion Leaders    PATEL Kalendu     President Asia, Enterp…    Best Buy Co. Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    SALTI Soraya     Senior Vice-President,…    INJAZ Al Arab – JA Worldwide     Jordan
Moderated by    TAPSCOTT Don     Chairman    Moxie Insight     Canada

155: WHAT IF: competitive devaluation becomes the global norm?

From the fate of the Eurozone to the future of US-China relations, there is concern that currency devaluations will radically alter the status quo.

In partnership with the World Economic Forum, Bloomberg Television hosts this debate on the effect of currency wars erupting around the world.

Moderated by    LACQUA Francine     Anchor “On the Move” a…    Bloomberg Television     Italy
Panellists    CARNEY Mark J.     Governor of the Bank o…         Canada
Panellists    FERGUSON Niall     Professor of History    Harvard University     United Kingdom
Panellists    FISCHER Stanley     Governor of the Centra…         Israel
Panellists    MOYNIHAN Brian T.     Chief Executive Office…    Bank of America Corporation     USA
Panellists    ROSTOWSKI Jacek     Minister of Finance of…         Poland
Panellists    SIMSEK Mehmet     Minister of Finance of…         Turkey

156: Managing across Cultures

How has the art and science of managing across cultures changed as a result of the rise of emerging markets?

This workshop will address the following dimensions:

- Regional perspectives
– Internal and external cultural differences
– Real-world dilemmas

Discussion Leaders    BOODAI Marwan M.     Chief Executive Officer    Boodai Corporation     Kuwait
Discussion Leaders    CHANDRASEKARAN Natarajan     Chief Executive Office…    Tata Consultancy Services Ltd     India
Discussion Leaders    CLAURE R. Marcelo     Chairman of the Board,…    Brightstar Corp.     USA
Discussion Leaders    LI YAT-SEN Jason     Director    The George Institute for Global Health     Australia
Discussion Leaders    RORSTED Kasper     Chief Executive Officer    Henkel AG & Co. KGaA     Denmark
Discussion Leaders    SAMARASEKERA Indira V.     President    University of Alberta     Canada
Facilitated by    SAWYER Keith     Associate Professor    Washington University     USA

157: Cyber Illusion

An illusion involves a distortion of our senses and can be optical, tactile or auditory in nature.

Learn from a cyber illusionist how the art of illusion has advanced in the digital age.

Introduced by    MARCUS Alan     Senior Director, Head …    World Economic Forum USA     USA
Panellists    TEMPEST Marco     Cyber Illusionist    Newmagic Communications Inc.     USA

158: Genuine Green Growth: Development through Agriculture

How can the agricultural sector drive inclusive growth in developing countries?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Investment in agriculture-based economies
– Public-private partnerships to drive growth
– The G20 commitment to agricultural development

Moderated by    SHAH Rajiv J.     Administrator, USAID -…         USA
Panellists    GRANT Hugh     Chairman, President an…    Monsanto Company     United Kingdom
Panellists    KIKWETE Jakaya M.     President of Tanzania         Tanzania
Panellists    LIPPE Stefan     Chief Executive Officer    Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd     Germany
Panellists    PAGE Gregory R.     Chairman, Chief Execut…    Cargill Incorporated     USA
Panellists    REDDY Chengal     Co-Chairman    Indian Farmers & Industry Allianc…     India

159: Architecture for Quality of Life

Architecture has the power to positively influence the quality of life for urban dwellers.

What are the architectural elements that make a building not just liveable, but life-enhancing?

Moderated by    ANTONELLI Paola     Senior Curator, Depart…    Museum of Modern Art     Italy
Panellists    BURDETT Richard     Director, LSE Cities a…    London School of Economics Cities Pro…     United Kingdom
Panellists    INGELS Bjarke     Architect    Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG)     Denmark
Panellists    SINCLAIR Cameron     Co-Founder and Executi…    Architecture for Humanity     United Kingdom

160: Art and the Natural World

“Keep your love of nature, for that is the true way to understand art more and more.” – Vincent van Gogh

How can artists inspire others to cherish and respect the natural world?

Moderated by    MARTON-LEFÈVRE Julia     Director-General    International Union for Conservation …     France
Panellists    BIRTWISTLE Silas     Artist, A Table from t…         United Kingdom
Panellists    CHANDRASHEKAR Anjali     Global Changemaker    British Council     India
Panellists    STONE Greg     Senior Vice-President …    Conservation International     USA

161: Mapping the Credit Landscape

Which sectors and geographies show signs of emerging credit risks?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Areas of over- and under-allocation of credit
– Flows to and from emerging economies
– Impact of recent financial reforms worldwide

Moderated by    SORKIN Andrew R.     Columnist    The New York Times     USA
Panellists    GHIZZONI Federico     Chief Executive Officer    UniCredit     Italy
Panellists    LARRAÍN BASCUÑÁN Felipe     Minister of Finance of…         Chile
Panellists    MINDICH Eric     Founder and Chief Exec…    Eton Park Capital Management LP     USA
Panellists    ROGOFF Kenneth     Thomas D. Cabot Profes…    Harvard University     USA
Panellists    SHARMA Deven     President    Standard & Poor’s Financial Servi…     USA

162: Europe’s Energy Future

How can Europe ensure its energy security while maintaining a sustainable and competitive supply?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Projected energy needs
– Impact of energy efficiency and low-carbon needs
– Strategic pipelines and other alternatives
– Geopolitical and country risks

Moderated by    SARKISSIAN Armen     President and Founder    Eurasia House International     United Kingdom
Panellists    ALIYEV Ilham     President of Azerbaijan         Azerbaijan
Panellists    KOMOROWSKI Bronislaw     President of Poland         Poland
Panellists    MESTRALLET Gérard     Chairman and Chief Exe…    GDF SUEZ     France
Panellists    YANUKOVYCH Viktor     President of Ukraine         Ukraine

163: IdeasLab with the Social Entrepreneurs

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on:Idea 1: Expanding financial literacy to 100 million by 2015
Idea 2: Creating partnerships to double access to health services to 20 million by 2014
Idea 3: Designing a successful social media platform launch strategy
Idea 4: Promoting handicrafts in a crowded marketplace
Idea 5: Hosting “edutainment” festivals for the poor

Discussion Leaders    BILLIMORIA Jeroo     Executive Director    Aflatoun, Child Social and Financial …     India
Discussion Leaders    COLEMAN Andrea     Chief Executive Office…    Riders for Health     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    JAPHET Garth C.     Founder and Chief Exec…    Heartlines     South Africa
Discussion Leaders    SCHOFIELD Patrick     Founder    Streetwire Artist’s Collective     South Africa
Discussion Leaders    ZYLBERSZTEJN Ariel     Founder and Chief Exec…    Cinepop     Mexico
Facilitated by    PASCALE Richard T.     Associate Fellow    Saïd Business School, University…     USA

164: Confronting New Realities: The Nordic Experience

What are the underlying principles and policies behind the economic success and social innovation that are hallmarks of Nordic countries?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Public-private collaboration
– Fiscal reform
– Gender and migration policies
– Employment and social protection

Moderated by    EKLUND Klas     Adjunct Professor of E…    University of Lund     Sweden
Panellists    GRIMSSON Olafur Ragnar     President of Iceland         Iceland
Panellists    HALONEN Tarja     President of Finland         Finland
Panellists    RASMUSSEN Lars Løkke     Prime Minister of Denmark         Denmark
Panellists    REINFELDT Fredrik     Prime Minister of Sweden         Sweden
Panellists    STOLTENBERG Jens     Prime Minister of Norway         Norway

165: A Social Contract for the 21st Century

How should the social contract – the rights and responsibilities of states, organizations and citizens towards one another – be revised in the wake of the Great Recession?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Rising anxiety in post-industrialized economies
– Changing expectations in emerging economies
– The stakeholder approach as the new norm
– Impact on multinational corporations

Challenger    WALLIS Stewart     Executive Director    New Economics Foundation     United Kingdom
Panellists    BACHELET Michelle     Undersecretary-General…         Chile
Panellists    MAHINDRA Anand G.     Vice-Chairman and Mana…    Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd     India
Panellists    TREMONTI Giulio     Minister of Economy an…         Italy
Panellists    VEJJAJIVA Abhisit     Prime Minister of Thai…         Thailand
Panellists    WILLIAMS Ronald A.     Chairman    Aetna Inc.     USA

166: Smart Mobility: The Future Today

How is the integration of information, telecommunication and transportation technology changing the future of mobility?

A visual exploration of:

- Technological innovation
– New business models
– National development strategies

Moderated by    PENTLAND Alex     Toshiba Professor of M…    Massachusetts Institute of Technology…     USA
Panellists    SUH NAM-PYO     President    Korea Advanced Institute of Science a…     USA
Panellists    TARIDE Michel     President, Hertz Inter…    Hertz Europe Limited     France

167: WHAT IF: Iran develops a nuclear weapon?

The assumption remains that an international solution will be found to manage Iran’s nuclear programme.

But what if the unthinkable becomes the inevitable and how would the Arab world adapt to this new reality?

Moderated by    MELHEM Hisham     Bureau Chief    Al Arabiya News Television     USA
Panellists    H.R.H. Prince Turki Al…     Prince of Saudi Royal …         Saudi Arabia
Panellists    AL BU-AINNAIN Khalid     Chairman    Baynuna Group     United Arab Emirates
Panellists    FREIHERR ZU GUTTENBERG…     Federal Minister of De…         Germany
Panellists    HAASS Richard N.     President    Council on Foreign Relations     USA
Panellists    SAMI JUDEH Nasser     Minister of Foreign Af…         Jordan

168: Rewiring the Responsible Enterprise

How can companies evaluate and integrate the growing roster of frameworks on corporate social responsibility and human rights?

This workshop will address the following dimensions:

- Shared norms and new frameworks
– Strategies for implementing change

Discussion Leaders    BAKER Douglas M.     Chairman, President an…    Ecolab Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    BHABHA Homi K.     Anne F. Rothenberg Pro…    Harvard University     USA
Discussion Leaders    KELL Georg     Executive Director, Gl…         Germany
Discussion Leaders    KRAUS Margery     President and Chief Ex…    APCO Worldwide Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    O’ROURKE Dara     Associate Professor, D…    University of California, Berkeley     USA
Discussion Leaders    SHETTY Salil     Secretary-General    Amnesty International     India
Discussion Leaders    STEELE Robert     Secretary-General    International Organization for Standa…     New Zealand
Facilitated by    LIGTERINGEN Ernst     Chief Executive    Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)     Netherlands

169: Managing “Fat Tails”

How should governments and businesses manage “fat tails” – the unusually high likelihood of catastrophic events?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Risk monitoring and assessment
– Risk mitigation and control
– Unconventional wisdom in response to fat tails

Moderated by    BREMMER Ian     President    Eurasia Group     USA
Panellists    BRIKHO Samir     Chief Executive Officer    AMEC Plc     Sweden
Panellists    GORDHAN Pravin     Minister of Finance of…         South Africa
Panellists    HOHMEISTER Harry     Chief Executive Officer    Swiss International Air Lines Ltd     Germany
Panellists    LOEB Daniel S.     Chief Executive Officer    Third Point LLC     USA
Panellists    MOSS Andrew     Chief Executive    Aviva Plc     United Kingdom

170: Raising Healthy Children

How can disease and mortality rates among children in developing countries be radically decreased?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Access to medicines and vaccinations
– Maternal health and nutrition
– Social and cultural factors

Moderated by    SHEERAN Josette     Executive Director, Un…         USA
Panellists    BONO     Lead singer of U2 and …    ONE     Ireland
Panellists    CHAN Margaret     Director-General, Worl…         People’s Republic of China
Panellists    FRENCH GATES Melinda     Co-Chair    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation     USA
Panellists    KENT Muhtar A.     Chairman of the Board …    The Coca-Cola Company     USA
Panellists    SORENSEN Lars Rebien     President and Chief Ex…    Novo Nordisk A/S     Denmark

171: Media’s Role in Shaping Norms

How are norms shaped in an era of digitalization and globalization?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Norms driven by digitalization and globalization
– Interplay between international and local values
– Impact on public opinion and government decision-making

Moderated by    SCHLESINGER David     Editor-in-Chief    Thomson Reuters     USA
Panellists    BROOKS David     Op-Ed Columnist    The New York Times     USA
Panellists    CONLON Peggy     President and Chief Ex…    Advertising Council     USA
Panellists    KIM JONG-HOON     Minister for Trade of …         Republic of Korea
Panellists    MARTIN Diarmuid     Archbishop of Dublin, …         Ireland
Panellists    AL MUTAWA Naif     Creator    THE 99 Comics     Kuwait

172: The New Mobile Reality

How will a new mobile experience transform industries and consumer behaviour?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Impact of “killer” mobile applications
– Future evolution of mobile devices
– Access, security and scale
– Mobile solutions to global issues

Moderated by    DUTTA Soumitra     The Roland Berger Chai…    INSEAD     India
Panellists    COLAO Vittorio     Chief Executive Officer    Vodafone Group Plc     Italy
Panellists    HASTINGS Anne     Managing Director    Fonkoze     USA
Panellists    MURDOCH James R.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    News Corporation     United Kingdom
Panellists    SCHMIDT Eric     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Google Inc.     USA

173: Redefining Work

How should the transition from an industrialized to a post-industrialized workforce be implemented?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Globalizing industries and consolidating workforces
– Productivity gains versus job creation
– Future employment niches and career paths

Moderated by    ROBERTSON Thomas     Dean    The Wharton School, University of Pen…     United Kingdom
Panellists    ALAHUHTA Matti     President and Chief Ex…    Kone Corporation     Finland
Panellists    BÜRKNER Hans-Paul     Global Chief Executive…    The Boston Consulting Group     Germany
Panellists    FOSTER George     Paul L. and Phyllis Wa…    Stanford Graduate School of Business     Australia
Panellists    HICKEY William V.     President and Chief Ex…    Sealed Air Corp.     USA
Panellists    JENNINGS Philip J.     General Secretary    UNI Global Union     United Kingdom

174: From Lean to Frugal Infrastructure

How can major infrastructure needs be met in the face of fiscal austerity?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Elements of lean infrastructure
– The economics of infrastructure financing
– Innovations in engineering and construction

Moderated by    MCINTIRE Lee A.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    CH2M HILL Companies Ltd     USA
Panellists    KALLAS Siim     Vice-President and Com…         Estonia
Panellists    NATH Kamal     Minister of Urban Deve…         India
Panellists    NISHIDA Atsutoshi     Chairman of the Board    Toshiba Corporation     Japan
Panellists    SPLINTER Michael R.     Chairman, President an…    Applied Materials Inc.     USA

175: Conducting an Orchestra: A Guide to Team Management

Orchestral conductor Itay Talgam will explore how great conducting leads not only to beautiful music, but also to inspiring leadership.

Panellists    TALGAM Itay     Conductor    Maestro Program     Israel

176: IdeasLab with the Young Global Leaders: Shared Values for Empowering Change

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on:

Idea 1: Enabling digital inclusion
Idea 2: Promoting transparency in government, business and civil society
Idea 3: Applying augmented reality
Idea 4: Building confidence and changing attitudes through entrepreneurship
Idea 5: Promoting dignity-based leadership

Discussion Leaders    CHIN Calvin     Chief Executive Officer    Qifang Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    H.R.H. Crown Prince Ha…     Crown Prince of Norway         Norway
Discussion Leaders    MADHUKAR C. V.     Director    PRS Legislative Research     India
Discussion Leaders    MAYER Marissa     Vice-President, Consum…    Google Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    RAIZ Allon     Chief Executive Officer    Raizcorp     South Africa
Facilitated by    OTTO Jill     Director    Companhia Financeira OTTO     Brazil

177: Visionary Art

Sometimes, when nature closes a door, technology can open a window.

Computer programmer Zachary Lieberman shares insight into technology that enables disabled artists to create art with their eyes instead of their hands.

Introduced by    SPEAR Josh     Founding Partner    Undercurrent     USA
Panellists    LIEBERMAN Zachary     Artist and Computer Pr…    thesystemis     USA

247: Polio: Eradicating an Old Reality Once and for All

A special message from the Government of the United Kingdom and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation on ridding the scourge of polio completely from the world

Polio cases have been reduced by 99% globally, but there are still over 1,000 known cases in developing countries that are crippling children.

Special Address by    CAMERON David     Prime Minister of the …         United Kingdom
Special Address by    FRENCH GATES Melinda     Co-Chair    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation     USA
Special Address by    GATES William H.     Co-Chair    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation     USA

178: Addressing Global and European Challenges

Introduced by    SCHWAB Klaus     Founder and Executive …    World Economic Forum     Germany
Special Address by    MERKEL Angela     Federal Chancellor of …         Germany

179: The Future of Enterprise

Although capitalism is unparalleled at meeting human needs, companies are increasingly perceived to be prospering at the expense of the broader community.

How should the modern enterprise be reshaped to create shared value that enhances its competitiveness while advancing the economic and social conditions in the communities in which it operates?

Chaired by    GREENHILL Robert     Managing Director and …    World Economic Forum     Canada
Panellists    GABRIELLI DE AZEVEDO J…     President and Chief Ex…    Petroleo Brasileiro SA Petrobras     Brazil
Panellists    BULCKE Paul     Chief Executive Officer    Nestlé SA     Belgium
Panellists    NOOYI Indra     Chairman and Chief Exe…    PepsiCo Inc.     India
Panellists    PORTER Michael E.     Bishop William Lawrenc…    Harvard Business School     USA
Panellists    THIAM Tidjane     Group Chief Executive    Prudential Plc     France

180: Revitalizing Global Trade

How can we deliver a successful conclusion to the Doha Development Round of global trade negotiations in 2011?

Moderated by    SUTHERLAND Peter D.     Chairman    Goldman Sachs International     Ireland
Panellists    BHAGWATI Jagdish     Professor    Columbia University     USA
Panellists    CAMERON David     Prime Minister of the …         United Kingdom
Panellists    LAMY Pascal     Director-General, Worl…         France
Panellists    MERKEL Angela     Federal Chancellor of …         Germany
Panellists    YUDHOYONO Susilo Bambang     President of Indonesia…         Indonesia

181: Does Faith Need Religious Institution?

The interest of people in existential questions and ethical orientation is unchanging. But the connection to institutions, even to churches, is decreasing. Young people are especially turning to religious beliefs that lie outside traditional structures.

How can religious institutions meet the longing for meaning and ethical orientation? What social and socio-political responsibilities do religious institutions have? How do they convert faith? Does faith need collective expression?

Moderated by    LEUTHARD Urs     Moderator    Swiss Television SF     Switzerland
Panellists    LOCHER Gottfried     President of the Council    Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches     Switzerland
Panellists    LORETAN-SALADIN Adrian     Professor of Canon Law…
Panellists    PARHISI Parinas     Representative of the …
Panellists    PULT Jon     President SP Canton of…         Switzerland
Panellists    SCHIEDER Rolf     Professor, Department …

182: The Art of the Interview

Some of the greatest historical moments in modern times have been the result of a media interview.

What were the most challenging and memorable interviews of the last decade?

Discussion Leaders    CHANDRA Vikram     Presenter and Editor    New Delhi Television (NDTV)     India
Discussion Leaders    JONES Anthony     Journalist    Australian Broadcasting Corporation -…     Australia
Discussion Leaders    RUI CHENGGANG     Director and Anchor    China Central Television (CCTV)     People’s Republic of China
Moderated by    MONCK Adrian     Managing Director, Hea…    World Economic Forum     United Kingdom

183: The Art of Negotiation

The most serious negotiations involve matters of life and death.

What lessons can be learned from experienced negotiators?

Discussion Leaders    BILDT Carl     Minister of Foreign Af…         Sweden
Discussion Leaders    HANSTAD Tim     President and Chief Ex…    Landesa     USA
Discussion Leaders    HENRY Mary Kay     International President    Service Employees International Union…     USA
Discussion Leaders    PANITCHPAKDI Supachai     Secretary-General, Uni…         Thailand
Discussion Leaders    TSVANGIRAI Morgan     Prime Minister of Zimb…         Zimbabwe
Moderated by    SHAPIRO Daniel     Founder and Director, …    Harvard Law School     USA

184: The New Realities of Modern China

What does the world really need to know about modern China?

Discussion Leaders    LIN YU     Chief Executive Officer    NetQin Mobile Inc.     People’s Republic of China
Discussion Leaders    PENG XIZHE     Dean, School of Social…    Fudan University     People’s Republic of China
Discussion Leaders    WANG BOMING     Editor-in-Chief    Caijing Magazine     People’s Republic of China
Discussion Leaders    WU ZHIPAN     Executive Vice-Preside…    Peking University     People’s Republic of China
Discussion Leaders    XIA XUELUAN     Professor of Sociology    Peking University     People’s Republic of China
Discussion Leaders    XU RONGSHENG     Chief Scientist of Cyb…    Chinese Academy of Sciences     People’s Republic of China
Moderated by    RAMO Joshua Cooper     Managing Director    Kissinger Associates Inc.     USA

185: Cultural Leaders Dinner

Arts and culture are vital catalysts for improving the state of the world.

Dine with the Cultural Leaders in Davos to discuss how arts and culture are shaping the world in which we live.

Discussion Leaders    ANTONIOU Platon     Photographer, USA         United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    BIRTWISTLE Silas     Artist, A Table from t…         United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    BRITTO Romero     Artist and President    Britto Central     Brazil
Discussion Leaders    CHANDRASHEKAR Anjali     Global Changemaker    British Council     India
Discussion Leaders    DE NIRO Robert     Co-Founder    Tribeca Enterprises LLC     USA
Discussion Leaders    GABRIEL Peter B.     Founder    Real World     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    INGELS Bjarke     Architect    Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG)     Denmark
Discussion Leaders    JOHNSON Mark     Founder    Playing for Change     USA
Discussion Leaders    KATAOKA Drue     Artist, Japan         Japan
Discussion Leaders    LEVINE Alison     Mountaineer and President    DareDevil Strategies     USA
Discussion Leaders    LIEBERMAN Zachary     Artist and Computer Pr…    thesystemis     USA
Discussion Leaders    OSBORNE Nigel     Professor, School of Arts    The University of Edinburgh     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    SAMUELSSON Marcus     Chef and Owner, Red Ro…    Marcus Samuelsson Group     USA
Discussion Leaders    SINGH Anant     Film Producer and Dist…    Videovision Entertainment     South Africa
Discussion Leaders    TALGAM Itay     Conductor    Maestro Program     Israel
Discussion Leaders    TEMPEST Marco     Cyber Illusionist    Newmagic Communications Inc.     USA
Moderated by    ZWINGGI Alois     Managing Director, Res…    World Economic Forum     Switzerland

186: The Micro-trends that Matter

Phenomena such as Internet marrieds, working retirees, extreme commuters and stay-at-home workers are now considered micro-trends.

What are the micro-trends that will matter most in the near future?

Discussion Leaders    ABRAHAM Reuben     Executive Director, Ce…    Indian School of Business     India
Discussion Leaders    HOFFMAN Reid     Executive Chairman and…    LinkedIn Corporation     USA
Discussion Leaders    HUFFINGTON Arianna     Co-Founder and Editor-…    Huffington Post     USA
Discussion Leaders    LEE Ellana     Managing Editor, Asia …    CNN International     USA
Discussion Leaders    NISHIYAMA Kohei     Founder    CUUSOO.com     Japan
Moderated by    BISHOP Matthew     New York Bureau Chief    The Economist     United Kingdom

187: The Pursuit of Happiness

There is a surge in efforts to find new ways of measuring happiness among individuals, communities and even entire nations.

How is happiness being studied and how will it impact economic, political and societal norms?

Discussion Leaders    CLARK Helen E.     Administrator, United …         New Zealand
Discussion Leaders    GRAHAM Carol     Charles Robinson Chair…    The Brookings Institution     USA
Discussion Leaders    PARKER Philip     Professor of Managemen…    INSEAD     USA
Discussion Leaders    SACHS Jeffrey D.     Director, The Earth In…         USA
Discussion Leaders    STIGLITZ Joseph E.     Professor    Columbia University     USA
Discussion Leaders    WALLIS Stewart     Executive Director    New Economics Foundation     United Kingdom
Moderated by    ESTY Dan     Professor    Yale University     USA

188: The Merits of Failure

“My great concern is not whether you have failed, but whether you are content with your failure.” – Abraham Lincoln

What lessons from historical failures can be applied today?

Discussion Leaders    KOSS Johann O.     President and Chief Ex…    Right To Play International     Norway
Discussion Leaders    PASSERA Corrado     Managing Director and …    Intesa Sanpaolo SpA     Italy
Discussion Leaders    ROTTENBERG Linda     Co-Founder and Chief E…    Endeavor     USA
Discussion Leaders    SCARAMUCCI Anthony     Managing Partner    Skybridge Capital     USA
Discussion Leaders    USEEM Michael     Professor of Managemen…    The Wharton School, University of Pen…     USA
Moderated by    KOEHN Nancy     James E. Robison Profe…    Harvard Business School     USA

189: Neuro-ethics: A Marriage between Morals and Matter

Neuroscience has shown that moral judgement can be altered by stimulating a part of the brain.

What is the link between neuroscience and ethics with regard to moral judgement?

Discussion Leaders    ARIELY Dan     Professor of Psycholog…    Duke University     USA
Discussion Leaders    DONALDSON Thomas     Professor of Business …    The Wharton School, University of Pen…     USA
Discussion Leaders    HALIFAX Roshi Joan     Founder, Abbot, Upaya …         USA
Discussion Leaders    SARASWATI Nikhilananda     Spiritual Head    Chinmaya Mission     India
Discussion Leaders    SECKEL Al     Cognitive Neuroscientist    Illusionworks LLC     USA
Discussion Leaders    SINGER Tania     Director, Department o…    Max-Planck Institute for Human Cognit…     Germany
Moderated by    DEGIOIA John J.     President    Georgetown University     USA

190: What the Future Holds

What does the future hold from the perspective of culture, science and technology?

Discussion Leaders    AEBISCHER Patrick     President    Ecole Polytechnique Fédéral…     Switzerland
Discussion Leaders    AGRAWAL BP     Executive Director    Sustainable Innovations Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    ALPER Howard     Chair and President    Science, Technology and Innovation Co…     Canada
Discussion Leaders    COELHO Paulo     Author    Sant Jordi Asociados     Brazil
Discussion Leaders    INAKAGE Masa     Dean and Professor, Gr…    Keio University     Japan
Discussion Leaders    MONIZ Ernest J.     Professor and Director…    Massachusetts Institute of Technology…     USA
Discussion Leaders    SHIRKY Clay     Associate Professor    Tisch School of the Arts     USA
Discussion Leaders    WEINBERG Gil     Director, Georgia Tech…    Georgia Tech     Israel
Moderated by    ARTHUR W. Brian     Professor    Santa Fe Institute     United Kingdom

191: Web Science

The Web is no longer just a medium of communication – it is itself a subject of scientific research.

How is the Web being studied and what does it reveal?

Discussion Leaders    GOLDFINGER Yair     Co-Founder and Chief T…    Dotomi     Israel
Discussion Leaders    PENTLAND Alex     Toshiba Professor of M…    Massachusetts Institute of Technology…     USA
Discussion Leaders    TAPSCOTT Don     Chairman    Moxie Insight     Canada
Moderated by    HALL Wendy     Dean, Faculty of Physi…    University of Southampton     United Kingdom

192: WHAT IF: another mega-bank fails?

The majority assumes that the financial industry and its regulator are now much better prepared to deal with a future banking crisis.

However, what if the assumption proves wrong? How would such a crisis be managed the second time around?

Discussion Leaders    AVERSA Stefano     President and Member o…    AlixPartners LLP     Italy
Discussion Leaders    HOMMEN Jan     Chief Executive Officer    ING Group     Netherlands
Discussion Leaders    JOHNSON Simon     Ronald A. Kurtz, Profe…    MIT – Sloan School of Management     USA
Discussion Leaders    SHIBATA Takumi     Deputy President and C…    Nomura Holdings Inc.     Japan
Discussion Leaders    SINISCALCO Domenico     Chairman, Morgan Stanl…    Morgan Stanley Bank Intl Ltd     Italy
Discussion Leaders    WEDER DI MAURO Beatrice     Professor of Economics    Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz     Switzerland
Moderated by    HALBERSTADT Victor     Professor of Public Ec…    Leiden University     Netherlands

___

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, The Junkerboden under Snow

Davos 2011: Thursday

January 24 2011

Davos 2011: Tuesday/Wednesday

There is still no publicly-accessible programme on the WEF site.

More of what part of the world was thinking about in January 2011, using the sometimes erratic session numbering in participants’ materials and including lunches and dinners and sessions open to the media:

Thursday, January 27

57: Nurturing Africa’s Natural Resources

From the scarce to the bountiful, how should Africa’s natural resources be governed to deliver inclusive growth and ensure their sustainability?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Agricultural land sales
– Mining resources
– Energy exploration
– Fishery depletion

Moderated by    BLAIR Tony     UN Middle East Quartet…         United Kingdom
Panellists    EL-KHAZINDAR Hisham     Managing Director and …    Citadel Capital S.A.E.     Egypt
Panellists    MBOWENI Tito     Chairman    AngloGold Ashanti Ltd     South Africa
Panellists    MEHRA Malini     Founder and Chief Exec…    Centre for Social Markets (CSM)     India
Panellists    SACHS Jeffrey D.     Director, The Earth In…         USA
Panellists    ZENAWI Meles     Prime Minister of Ethi…         Ethiopia

58: The Art of Visual Storytelling

Capturing the attention of a younger digitized generation requires creating new narrative forms. How can leaders connect with the anime and manga generation through animation and visual storytelling?

Moderated by    DALEY Elizabeth     Dean, School of Cinema…    University of Southern California (USC)     USA
Panellists    INAKAGE Masa     Dean and Professor, Gr…    Keio University     Japan
Panellists    AL MUTAWA Naif     Creator    THE 99 Comics     Kuwait

59: The New Reality of Consumer Power

What are the opportunities – and limitations – of consumer empowerment?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Impact of increased market transparency
– Understanding of behavioural influencers
– Government regulation and consumer protection

Moderated by    O’ROURKE Dara     Associate Professor, D…    University of California, Berkeley     USA
Panellists    DALLI John     Commissioner, Health a…         Malta
Panellists    EDELMAN Richard W.     President and Chief Ex…    Edelman     USA
Panellists    GOLEMAN Daniel     Co-Director, Consortiu…    Rutgers University     USA
Panellists    LAWLESS Gerald     Executive Chairman    Jumeirah Group     Ireland
Panellists    MARTENS Joost     Director-General    Consumers International     Netherlands
Panellists    POLMAN Paul     Chief Executive Officer    Unilever     Netherlands

60: We Are What We Eat

The ever-increasing interest in cooking shows and celebrity chefs reaffirms the impact of food on popular culture worldwide. What can we learn about ourselves from kitchens around the world?

Introduced by    WEST Tiffany     Director, Programme De…         USA
Panellists    SAMUELSSON Marcus     Chef and Owner, Red Ro…    Marcus Samuelsson Group     USA

61: Managing a “Balance Sheet” Recovery

As the strain on government balance sheets grows, how can future fiscal crises be averted?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Impact of fiscal adjustment policies on future growth
– Public and private sector responsibilities
– Sovereign bond market expectations
– International coordination to address spillover effects

Moderated by    FRIEDMAN Robert     Editor-at-Large, Finance    Bloomberg News     USA
Panellists    GURRÍA Angel     Secretary-General, Org…         Mexico
Panellists    NALLY Dennis     Chairman    PricewaterhouseCoopers International     USA
Panellists    REINHART Carmen M.     Director and Professor    Center for International Economics, U…     USA
Panellists    SINGER Paul     Principal    Elliott Management Corporation     USA
Panellists    UJIIE Junichi     Chairman    Nomura Holdings Inc.     Japan

62: Globalization 3.0

How are cross-border growth patterns changing after the Great Recession?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The evolution of global value chains
– Impact on regional integration
– Shifting consumption patterns and investment flows

Moderated by    LAWRENCE Robert Z.     Albert L. Williams Pro…    Harvard Kennedy School     USA
Panellists    APPEL Frank     Chief Executive Officer    Deutsche Post DHL     Germany
Panellists    DAVIES Rob     Minister of Trade and …         South Africa
Panellists    LIVINGSTON Ian     Chief Executive Officer    BT Group Plc     United Kingdom
Panellists    SCHWARZMAN Stephen A.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    The Blackstone Group     USA
Panellists    WEI JIAFU     Group President and Ch…    China Ocean Shipping Group Co. (COSCO)     People’s Republic of China

63: IdeasLab with the London Business School: Breakthroughs in Business Strategy

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on:

Idea 1: Formations – changing market structures and implications for business models
Idea 2: Bridges – technology and innovation in delivery channels
Idea 3: Rivers – financing innovation
Idea 4: People – leading and managing in an interconnected world

Discussion Leaders    CHANDY Rajesh     Professor of Marketing    London Business School     USA
Discussion Leaders    DUSHNITSKY Gary     Associate Professor of…    London Business School     Israel
Discussion Leaders    HAY Michael     Professor of Managemen…    London Business School     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    RAMDAS Kamalini     Professor of Managemen…    London Business School     USA
Facilitated by    PASCALE Richard T.     Associate Fellow    Saïd Business School, University…     USA
Introduced by    LIKIERMAN Andrew     Dean    London Business School     United Kingdom

64: IdeasLab with Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology: The Future of Mobility

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on:

Idea 1: Mobility in 2020 – conquering technical and economic constraints
Idea 2: Optimizing public transportation
Idea 3: The car of the future – alternatives to gasoline
Idea 4: New user interfaces and solutions for reduced mobility

Discussion Leaders    GUZZELLA Lino     Professor    ETH Zurich     Switzerland
Discussion Leaders    DEL R. MILLÁN José     Defitech Foundation Ch…    Ecole Polytechnique Fédéral…     Spain
Discussion Leaders    RUFER Alfred     Professor, STI – Indus…    Ecole Polytechnique Fédéral…     Switzerland
Discussion Leaders    WEIDMANN Ulrich Alois     Professor, Institute f…    ETH Zurich     Switzerland
Facilitated by    TAN CHORH-CHUAN     President    National University of Singapore     Singapore
Introduced by    AEBISCHER Patrick     President    Ecole Polytechnique Fédéral…     Switzerland
Introduced by    EICHLER Ralph     President    ETH Zurich     Switzerland

65: The Next Shock: Are We Better Prepared?

With lingering doubts over recent repairs to the financial system, how can industry and government leaders prepare for the next shock to the global economy?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Potential geopolitical shocks
– Vulnerability of emerging markets
– Social instability in industrialized economies
– Regulatory readiness worldwide

Moderated by    ZAKARIA Fareed     Anchor, Fareed Zakaria…    CNN     USA
Panellists    BARTON Dominic     Worldwide Managing Dir…    McKinsey & Company     Canada
Panellists    DIMON James     Chairman and Chief Exe…    JPMorgan Chase & Co.     USA
Panellists    KLEINFELD Klaus     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Alcoa Inc.     Germany
Panellists    LÉVY Maurice     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Publicis Groupe SA     France

66: Russia’s Next Steps to Modernization

With its national goal to become a knowledge-based economy and society in the next decade, what next steps are required for Russia’s modernization?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The mindset for effective change
– Building confidence in business and government
– The foreign investment climate

This session is co-organized with the St Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF).

Moderated by    FRIEDMAN Thomas L.     Columnist, Foreign Aff…    The New York Times     USA
Panellists    ALBAUGH Jim     President and Chief Ex…    Boeing Commercial Airplanes     USA
Panellists    KRON Patrick     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Alstom     France
Panellists    MEDVEDEV Dmitry     President of the Russi…         Russian Federation
Panellists    NOOYI Indra     Chairman and Chief Exe…    PepsiCo Inc.     India

67: Biology’s Frontiers

The first cell with a synthetic genome – a “synthetic life form” – was created last year.

J. Craig Venter will discuss the opportunities and risks that biological discoveries pose for the planet and humankind.

Moderated by    DRAZEN Jeffrey M.     Editor-in-Chief    The New England Journal of Medicine     USA
Panellists    VENTER J. Craig     Founder and President    J. Craig Venter Institute     USA

68: Six Global Challenges, One Solution: Women

How can educating and empowering girls and women radically impact six acute challenges facing the world?

This workshop will address the following dimensions:

- Education
– Health
– Unemployment
– Ageing populations
– Population growth
– Conflict resolution

Discussion Leaders    BLOOM David E.     Clarence James Gamble …    Harvard School of Public Health     USA
Discussion Leaders    EVANS John     General Secretary    Trade Union Advisory Committee to the…     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    JIMENEZ Emmanuel     Director, Human Develo…    The World Bank     Philippines
Discussion Leaders    ROSES PERIAGO Mirta     Regional Director, The…    Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)     Argentina
Discussion Leaders    SHAPIRO Daniel     Founder and Director, …    Harvard Law School     USA
Discussion Leaders    YOO Tae     Senior Vice-President,…    Cisco     USA
Facilitated by    TYSON Laura D’Andrea     Professor of Business …    University of California, Berkeley     USA
Opening Remarks by    BACHELET Michelle     Undersecretary-General…         Chile

70: Secrets of the Sea

As the mysteries of the sea slowly surface, what are the realities of human impact on our oceans?

Moderated by    RIS Bud     President and Chief Ex…    New England Aquarium     USA
Panellists    HENDERSON Gideon     Co-Director, 21st Cent…    University of Oxford     United Kingdom
Panellists    STEINER Achim     Executive Director, Un…         Germany
Panellists    STONE Greg     Senior Vice-President …    Conservation International     USA

71: The Big Shift and the Imperative of 21st Century Globalism

[No description]

Introduced by    SCHWAB Klaus     Founder and Executive …         Germany
Special Address by    YUDHOYONO Susilo Bambang     President of Indonesia…         Indonesia

72: Vision for the G20

[No description]

Introduced by    SCHWAB Klaus     Founder and Executive …         Germany
Special Address by    SARKOZY Nicolas     President of France         France

73: Art Walk

This guided tour will offer an introduction to contemporary Indian art, led by the curators of the art exhibition in the Congress Centre, and explore the social consciousness behind several additional artworks.

Introduced by    ZWINGGI Alois     Managing Director, Res…         Switzerland
Panellists    BIRTWISTLE Silas     Artist, A Table from t…         United Kingdom
Panellists    MEHTA Tasneem Zakaria     Director    Dr Bhau Daji Lad Museum     India

74: Introducing the Open Forum

[No description]

Introduced by    LOCHER Gottfried     President of the Council    Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches     Switzerland
Introduced by    PROBST Gilbert J. B.     Managing Director and …         Switzerland

75: Towards Greater Integration of the Americas

How can a new sense of partnership unleash the full potential of the Western Hemisphere?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Intra- and inter-regional collaboration
– North-South integration
– Global positioning of the continent

Discussion Leaders    BRISON Scott     Member of Parliament a…         Canada
Discussion Leaders    EIZENSTAT Stuart E.     Partner and Head, Inte…    Covington & Burling LLP     USA
Discussion Leaders    FERRARI Bruno     Secretary of the Econo…         Mexico
Discussion Leaders    INSULZA José Miguel     Secretary-General, Org…         Chile
Discussion Leaders    KIRK Ron     US Trade Representative         USA
Discussion Leaders    LARRAÍN BASCUÑÁN Felipe     Minister of Finance of…         Chile
Discussion Leaders    MARTINELLI Ricardo     President of Panama         Panama
Moderated by    HAUSMANN Ricardo     Director, Center for I…    Harvard Kennedy School     USA

76: Asia’s Fault Lines

Although economic ties continue to deepen, what are the strategic interests and security threats that may trigger conflict?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Rising regional influence of China and India
– The future of the Korean Peninsula
– Unresolved territorial disputes
– Trade versus security interests

Discussion Leaders    ECONOMY Elizabeth C.     C. V. Starr Senior Fel…    Council on Foreign Relations     USA
Discussion Leaders    JINDAL Naveen     Executive Vice-Chairma…    Jindal Steel and Power Limited     India
Discussion Leaders    KAWAGUCHI Yoriko     Member of the House of…         Japan
Discussion Leaders    MAHBUBANI Kishore     Dean    Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy     Singapore
Discussion Leaders    MOON CHUNG-IN     Professor of Political…    Yonsei University     Republic of Korea
Discussion Leaders    MULIANA NATALEGAWA Rad…     Minister of Foreign Af…         Indonesia
Moderated by    NIBLETT Robin     Director    Chatham House     United Kingdom

77: Development Lessons from High-growth Economies

What are the development lessons – good and bad – that slow-growth, industrialized economies can learn from faster-growing emerging markets?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Enabling factors of high growth
– The role of entrepreneurs
– Hard and soft infrastructure
– Alternative development models

Discussion Leaders    BAJAJ Rahul     Chairman    Bajaj Auto Ltd     India
Discussion Leaders    CARLSSON Gunilla     Minister of Internatio…         Sweden
Discussion Leaders    MUSTAPA MOHAMED     Minister of Internatio…         Malaysia
Discussion Leaders    OGATA Sadako     President, Japan Inter…         Japan
Discussion Leaders    OKONJO-IWEALA Ngozi     Managing Director, Wor…         Nigeria
Discussion Leaders    RACHID Rachid Mohamed     Minister of Trade and …         Egypt
Discussion Leaders    SALA-I-MARTIN Xavier     Professor, Economics D…    Columbia University     Spain
Moderated by    KOH Annie     Associate Professor of…    Singapore Management University     Singapore

78: The Eurozone: Shifting from Survival to Revival

How can another Eurozone crisis be averted?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Lessons from Greece and Ireland
– Alleviating immediate financial pressures
– Longer-term structural reforms
– Monetary, fiscal and social implications

Challenger    KYRIAKOS-SAAD Fawzi     Chief Executive Office…    Credit Suisse AG     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    BRÜDERLE Rainer     Federal Minister of Ec…         Germany
Discussion Leaders    HALBERSTADT Victor     Professor of Public Ec…    Leiden University     Netherlands
Discussion Leaders    PAPACONSTANTINOU George     Minister of Finance of…         Greece
Discussion Leaders    REHN Olli     Commissioner, Economic…         Finland
Discussion Leaders    ROSTOWSKI Jacek     Minister of Finance of…         Poland
Discussion Leaders    SINISCALCO Domenico     Chairman, Morgan Stanl…    Morgan Stanley Bank Intl Ltd     Italy
Moderated by    PESTON Robert     Business Editor    BBC News     United Kingdom

79: Rebuilding Global Governance

How can the effectiveness and accountability of global governance institutions be improved?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Legitimacy and effectiveness of existing institutions
– Evolution of the G20 and other informal arrangements
– Emerging new norms in global governance

Challenger    Lord MALLOCH-BROWN     Chairman, Global Affairs    FTI Consulting     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    H.R.H. Prince Turki Al…     Prince of Saudi Royal …         Saudi Arabia
Discussion Leaders    HAASS Richard N.     President    Council on Foreign Relations     USA
Discussion Leaders    LAMY Pascal     Director-General, Worl…         France
Discussion Leaders    PANGESTU Mari Elka     Minister of Trade of I…         Indonesia
Discussion Leaders    SAKONG Il     Chairman, Presidential…         Republic of Korea
Discussion Leaders    SAMANS Richard     Managing Director, Wor…         USA
Moderated by    WOODS Ngaire     Professor of Internati…    University of Oxford     United Kingdom

80: HIV/AIDS: Lessons for the Future

Thirty years after the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), what are the key lessons learned for public health and medicine for the next decade?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Insights from the field
– Lessons on pandemic prevention
– Effective public-private partnerships
– Management of economic and societal impacts

Discussion Leaders    DALLI John     Commissioner, Health a…         Malta
Discussion Leaders    GLASSER Robert     Secretary-General    Care International     Australia
Discussion Leaders    KEEHAN Carol     President and Chief Ex…         USA
Discussion Leaders    LUDWIG Edward J.     Chairman of the Board …    Becton, Dickinson and Company     USA
Discussion Leaders    H.R.H. Crown Princess …     Crown Princess of Norway         Norway
Discussion Leaders    PIOT Peter     Director and Professor…    London School of Hygiene and Tropical…     Belgium
Moderated by    HOGG Alec     Editor-in-Chief    Moneyweb Holdings     South Africa

81: National Innovation: An Oxymoron?

Despite widespread perceptions of the decline of the West, Europe, Japan and the US hold leadership positions in major innovation rankings.

How are national innovation systems created and maintained?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The role of science and technology development
– The impact of education reform
– Key elements of policy design

Discussion Leaders    ARTHUR W. Brian     Professor    Santa Fe Institute     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    GURRY Francis     Director-General, Worl…         Australia
Discussion Leaders    HIRANANDANI-VANDREVALA…     Founder and Co-Chairman    Hirco Group     India
Discussion Leaders    JEFFERSON Richard A.     Chief Executive Officer    Cambia     Australia
Discussion Leaders    SEIKE Atsushi     President    Keio University     Japan
Moderated by    KAO John     Chairman and Founder    Institute for Large Scale Innovation …     USA

82: Norms of the Net Generation Workforce

In the digital era, how is the “net generation” workforce reshaping the future of business?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Education and skills development
– Workforce incentives and career expectations
– Management style and corporate culture
– Familiarity with technology

Discussion Leaders    BLOUNT Sally     Dean    Kellogg School of Management     USA
Discussion Leaders    DAMARILLO Winston     Chief Executive Officer    Morphlabs Inc.     Philippines
Discussion Leaders    ROTH Michael I.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Interpublic Group     USA
Discussion Leaders    RUSH Sean C.     President and Chief Ex…    JA Worldwide     USA
Discussion Leaders    SHIRKY Clay     Associate Professor    Tisch School of the Arts     USA
Moderated by    SCHRAMM J. B.     Founder and Chief Exec…    College Summit     USA

83: Euro Grounding?

The euro should contribute to the stabilization of the EU national economies. However, in recent times, it has considerably lost value. Numerous euro-countries have been unable to keep to the criteria of stability and growth. High national debt brings them to the edge of insolvency. The European Monetary Union is endangered.

What effect does the euro crisis have on Switzerland? How should Switzerland contribute to finding a solution to the crisis? In the long term, how can the euro and the EU survive? What effect does the crisis have worldwide? Is international financial stability once more facing a collapse?

Moderated by    WILLE Susanne F.     Journalist    Swiss Television SF     Switzerland
Panellists    HANKEL Wilhelm     Professor of Economics…
Panellists    ODIER Patrick     Senior Partner    Lombard Odier Darier Hentsch & Cie     Switzerland
Panellists    PAPALEXOPOULOS Dimitri     Managing Director    Titan Cement Company SA     Greece
Panellists    ROUBINI Nouriel     Professor of Economics…    New York University     USA
Panellists    TRICHET Jean-Claude     President, European Ce…         France

84: Criminals without Borders

With criminal networks proliferating across borders, how can the threat of transnational crime be contained?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Evolution of criminal networks
– Impact of transnational crime
– International coordination and crime prevention

Discussion Leaders    DANZIGER Richard     Chief of Mission for S…    International Organization for Migrat…     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    FEDOTOV Yury     Executive Director, Un…         Russian Federation
Discussion Leaders    GUÉHENNO Jean-Marie     Arnold Saltzman Profes…    Columbia University     France
Discussion Leaders    SANTOS Juan Manuel     President of Colombia         Colombia
Discussion Leaders    WAINWRIGHT Robert     Director    Europol (European Police)     United Kingdom
Moderated by    NAÍM Moisés     Senior Associate, Inte…    Carnegie Endowment for International …     USA

85: The Innovative Middle East

What innovations, if scaled or replicated, would enable the Middle East to achieve its geopolitical, economic and social aspirations for the future?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Water-food-energy nexus
– Education, employment and entrepreneurship
– Geopolitics and political reform

Discussion Leaders    BORYSIEWICZ Sir Leszek     Vice-Chancellor    University of Cambridge     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    FAKHOURY Imad     Minister of State for …         Jordan
Discussion Leaders    AL JABER Abdul Malik     Chief Executive Officer    Zain Jordan     Canada
Discussion Leaders    PATIL Pawan     Chief Economist and Ch…    Silatech     USA
Discussion Leaders    ROSEN Amy     President and Chief Ex…    Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship…     USA
Moderated by    KHAN Riz     Anchor    Al Jazeera     United Kingdom

86: Scaling up Big Ideas

How can social innovations be scaled up for wider effect and greater impact?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Nature of social innovation
– Challenges of scaling
– Models of collaboration

Discussion Leaders    COLEMAN Andrea     Chief Executive Office…    Riders for Health     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    MAROT Sebastien     Executive Director    Friends-International     France
Discussion Leaders    MORENO Luis A.     President, Inter-Ameri…         Colombia
Discussion Leaders    NILEKANI Nandan M.     Chairman    Unique Identification Authority of In…     India
Discussion Leaders    SPRENG David     Founder and Managing P…    Crescendo Ventures     USA
Moderated by    DEES James Gregory     Professor, Practice of…    Duke University     USA

87: Global Leadership: A New Era?

The growing prominence of the G20 has captured headlines globally, but the widely shared perception is that the world’s problems are now more difficult to solve than ever before. In partnership with the World Economic Forum, BBC hosts this live debate focusing on the future of global leadership.

Moderated by    GOWING Nik     Main Presenter    BBC World News     United Kingdom
Panellists    CANTOR Eric I.     Majority Leader and Co…         USA
Panellists    LAGARDE Christine     Minister of Economy, F…         France
Panellists    SHARMA Anand     Minister of Commerce a…         India

88: Mega-regions or Mega-problems?

With 40 mega-regions accounting for two-thirds of the world’s economic activities, how can regional agglomeration be harnessed to accommodate growth, increase competitiveness, and effectively manage risks?

This WorkStudio will address the following dimensions:

- Environmental sustainability and resources
– Housing and infrastructure
– Population dynamics and health
– Economic development and technological innovation

Discussion Leaders    EBRARD CASAUBÓN Marcel…     Mayor of Mexico City         Mexico
Discussion Leaders    FAKHOURY Imad     Minister of State for …         Jordan
Discussion Leaders    GOSIN Barry M.     Chief Executive Officer    Newmark Knight Frank     USA
Discussion Leaders    HANDE Harish     Managing Director    SELCO Solar Light (P) Limited     India
Discussion Leaders    JIMENEZ Emmanuel     Director, Human Develo…    The World Bank     Philippines
Discussion Leaders    OTTO-ZIMMERMANN Konrad     Secretary-General    ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustain…     Germany
Discussion Leaders    ROSES PERIAGO Mirta     Regional Director, The…    Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)     Argentina
Facilitated by    MOSTAFAVI Mohsen     Dean    Harvard University Graduate School of…     USA

89: Mindful Leadership

How can mindfulness – the sense of oneself and one’s impact on others – result in effective leadership?

This workshop will address the following dimensions:

- Origins of mindfulness
– Common causes of leadership failure
– Methods of mindful leadership

Co-Facilitated by    GEORGE William W.     Professor of Managemen…    Harvard Business School     USA
Co-Facilitated by    SCHARMER C. Otto     Senior Lecturer, Organ…    MIT – Sloan School of Management     Germany
Discussion Leaders    HORI Yoshito     Chairman and Chief Exe…    GLOBIS Corporation     Japan
Discussion Leaders    SEIDMAN Dov     Founder and Chief Exec…    LRN     USA
Discussion Leaders    WALLIS Jim     Editor-in-Chief and Ch…    Sojourners     USA

90: “Talk to Me”

An exhibit that explores the world of communication between people and things will open at New York’s Museum of Modern Art in 2011.

Curator Paola Antonelli leads a visual journey through the way objects, cities and systems talk to people in different ways.

Panellists    ANTONELLI Paola     Senior Curator, Depart…    Museum of Modern Art     Italy

91: The New Reality of Climate Change

How can we build on the growing interest in national and stakeholder-driven solutions to make the needed progress on climate change mitigation and adaptation?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Role of business
– Low-carbon growth plans
– Coalitions of like-minded countries

Moderated by    WIRTH Timothy E.     President    United Nations Foundation     USA
Panellists    CAMERON James     Founder and Vice-Chairman    Climate Change Capital     United Kingdom
Panellists    FIGUERES Christiana     Executive Secretary, U…         Costa Rica
Panellists    HEDEGAARD Connie     Commissioner, Climate …         Denmark
Panellists    MOLEWA Edna     Minister of Water and …         South Africa
Panellists    STIGSON Björn     President    World Business Council for Sustainabl…     Sweden

92: Europe: Back to the Drawing Board?

How can Europe implement the structural reforms required to ensure its cohesion and competitiveness?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Addressing sovereign debt
– Employment and social security policies
– Structural reform agenda (Europe 2020)
– Improving the business environment

Moderated by    BARBER Lionel     Editor    The Financial Times     United Kingdom
Panellists    CLEGG Nick     Deputy Prime Minister …         United Kingdom
Panellists    FAYMANN Werner     Federal Chancellor of …         Austria
Panellists    PAPANDREOU George A.     Prime Minister of Greece         Greece
Panellists    TRICHET Jean-Claude     President, European Ce…         France
Panellists    WALLENBERG Jacob     Chairman    Investor AB     Sweden

93: How to Close the Gender Gap

How are businesses and governments developing models to achieve gender parity?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Innovative approaches
– The Nordic experience
– Emerging market models
– Implementation challenges

Moderated by    BROWN J. Frank     Dean    INSEAD     USA
Panellists    KIVINIEMI Mari     Prime Minister of Finland         Finland
Panellists    MOHOHLO Linah K.     Governor of the Bank o…         Botswana
Panellists    O’BRIEN Damien     Global Chairman and Ch…    Egon Zehnder International SA     Australia
Panellists    OTTO Jill     Director    Companhia Financeira OTTO     Brazil
Panellists    SCHWAB Nicole     Co-Founder    The Gender Equality Project     Switzerland

94: IdeasLab with University of Oxford: Breakthroughs in Technology for Society

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on:

Idea 1: Technology to overcome the biggest challenges
Idea 2: Geo-engineering to slow climate change or compound the dangers
Idea 3: Re-engineering nerve cells to remote-control behaviour
Idea 4: Technologies to create a marketplace for biodiversity
Idea 5: Novel vaccines to drive improvements in child health

Discussion Leaders    GOLDIN Ian     Director, Oxford Marti…    University of Oxford     South Africa
Discussion Leaders    HENDERSON Gideon     Co-Director, 21st Cent…    University of Oxford     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    LEA Susan     Co-Director, Institute…    University of Oxford     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    MIESENBOECK Gero     Co-Director, Programme…    Oxford Martin School     Austria
Discussion Leaders    WILLIS Kathy     Director, Biodiversity…    University of Oxford     United Kingdom
Facilitated by    PASCALE Richard T.     Associate Fellow    Saïd Business School, University…     USA
Introduced by    HAMILTON Andrew     Vice-Chancellor    University of Oxford     United Kingdom

95: Healing through Music

“After silence, that which comes nearest to expressing the inexpressible is music.” – Aldous Huxley

How can music provide a healing power to soothe the mind as well as the soul?

Panellists    OSBORNE Nigel     Professor, School of Arts    The University of Edinburgh     United Kingdom

96: Shakespearean Leadership

Shakespearean wisdom provides a unique perspective on effective approaches for motivation, persuasion and engagement.

Join this active learning session for timeless insights into leadership.

Panellists    ADELMAN Carol     President    Movers & Shakespeares     USA
Panellists    ADELMAN Ken     Vice-President    Movers & Shakespeares     USA

97: The Politics of Slower Growth

How are political norms changing in slow-growth democracies?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- State role in the economy
– Social welfare and pension reform
– Popular disillusionment and political backlash
– Impact on long-term strategic priorities

Moderated by    GARTON ASH Timothy     Professor of European …    University of Oxford     United Kingdom
Panellists    COPÉ Jean-François     Secretary-General, Uni…         France
Panellists    HASEGAWA Yasuchika     President and Chief Ex…    Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd     Japan
Panellists    JONGERIUS Agnes     President    Confederation of Dutch Trade Unions     Netherlands
Panellists    PRÖLL Josef     Vice-Chancellor and Fe…         Austria
Panellists    SUMMERS Lawrence H.     Charles W. Eliot Unive…    Harvard University     USA

98: The Unrecoverable Error: How to Respond

How can businesses ensure that a severe economic, financial, social or environmental shock does not impact their social license to operate?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Financial market breakdowns
– Confidential data breaches
– Infrastructure failures

Moderated by    STEINBERG Kevin     Chief Operating Office…         Canada
Panellists    ABDULLA-JANAHI Khalid     Honorary Chairman    Vision 3     Bahrain
Panellists    CARNEY Mark J.     Governor of the Bank o…         Canada
Panellists    DYER Colin     President and Chief Ex…    Jones Lang LaSalle Inc.     United Kingdom
Panellists    PAGLIUCA Stephen G.     Managing Director    Bain Capital     USA
Panellists    WIRJAWAN Gita     Chairman, Investment C…         Indonesia

99: Our Origins: Understanding the Universe

With less than 5% of the universe visible to us today, how are scientists trying to understand our origins and what the universe holds?

A visual exploration of:

- Astrophysics
– Quantum physics

Moderated by    CAMPBELL Philip     Editor-in-Chief    Nature     United Kingdom
Panellists    HEUER Rolf-Dieter     Director-General    European Organization for Nuclear Res…     Germany
Panellists    KRAUSS Lawrence M.     Professor, School of E…    Arizona State University     USA

100: The Future of Chinese Enterprise (Mandarin Chinese)

Given China’s tradition of state ownership, how will its largest companies compete domestically and expand internationally?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Strategic industries
– Investor relations
– Corporate governance
– Future economic reforms and “opening up”

Moderated by    LI DAOKUI     Director    Center for China in the World Economy…     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    GAO JIFAN     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Trina Solar Ltd     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    LIU CHUANZHI     Chairman of the Board    Lenovo     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    PENG SEN     Vice-Chairman, Nationa…         People’s Republic of China
Panellists    YU RUMIN     Chairman of the Board    Tianjin Port (Group) Company Ltd     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    ZHU Min     Special Adviser, Inter…         People’s Republic of China

101: Combating Chronic Disease

With chronic disease causing nearly 60% of all deaths, how should the public and private sectors work together to combat diabetes, cancer, and heart and lung diseases?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Impact of chronic disease globally
– Creating political attention
– Cross-industry collaboration

Moderated by    GUPTA Sanjay     Chief Medical Correspo…    CNN International     USA
Panellists    BAN KI-MOON     Secretary-General, Uni…         Republic of Korea
Panellists    CLARK Richard T.     Chairman    Merck & Co. Inc.     USA
Panellists    FRENK Julio     Dean    Harvard School of Public Health     Mexico
Panellists    JACOBS Paul E.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Qualcomm Inc.     USA
Panellists    POWELL Kendall J.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    General Mills Inc.     USA

102: Taking Part in Community Transformation

“We are not transformed because we have understanding of our situation; rather, we are transformed by participating in the process of transformation.” – Augusto Boal

How can leaders promote change among the people with whom, and often on whose behalf, they interact?

This theatre-based session will address the following:

- Developing critical awareness
– Removing obstacles to action
– Transforming dependency into autonomy

Facilitated by    BLAIR Brent     Associate Professor of…    University of Southern California (USC)     USA
Introduced by    BECKER Carol     Dean, School of the Arts    Columbia University     USA

103: Accounting for New Realities: Redesigning Corporate Reporting

With growing interest in the environmental, social and ethical risks associated with global business, how should corporate reporting be redesigned to integrate critical information on these risks under a common framework?

This workshop will address the following dimensions:

- Shortcomings of existing accounting standards
– Critical new non-financial aspects of performance
– Ensuring a balanced playing field

Challengers    LIGTERINGEN Ernst     Chief Executive    Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)     Netherlands
Challengers    SAMANS Richard     Managing Director, Wor…         USA
Discussion Leaders    NALLY Dennis     Chairman    PricewaterhouseCoopers International     USA
Discussion Leaders    NONNENMACHER Rolf     Chairman, KPMG, German…    KPMG     Germany
Discussion Leaders    QUIGLEY James H.     Global Chief Executive…    Deloitte     USA
Discussion Leaders    TURLEY James S.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Ernst & Young     USA
Facilitated by    ESTY Dan     Professor    Yale University     USA

104: Yes Is More – The Architecture of Inclusivism

Architect Bjarke Ingels embraces an inclusive approach to incorporate ideas, overcome limitations and design buildings beyond expectations.

How is architecture today focused on evolution, not revolution?

Introduced by    LOADES Emma     Director, Programme De…         United Kingdom
Panellists    INGELS Bjarke     Architect    Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG)     Denmark

105: Redesigning the International Monetary System: A Davos Debate

How should the international monetary system evolve to improve macroeconomic coordination?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Lessons from previous crises
– Options for international monetary system reform
– Enhanced G20 coordination
– Possible scenarios

Moderated by    BERGSTEN C. Fred     Director    The Peterson Institute for Internatio…     USA
Panellists    GREF Herman     Chairman of the Board …    Sberbank     Russian Federation
Panellists    JIANG JIANQING     Chairman of the Board    Industrial and Commercial Bank of Chi…     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    LAGARDE Christine     Minister of Economy, F…         France
Panellists    LIPSKY John     First Deputy Managing …         USA
Panellists    RAJAN Raghuram G.     Eric J. Gleacher Disti…    The University of Chicago Booth Schoo…     India
Panellists    SOROS George     Chairman    Soros Fund Management LLC     USA

106: Leapfrogging to Low-carbon Growth

How can emerging economies embark on a low-carbon growth path and become low-carbon role models?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Meeting and reshaping consumer expectations
– Changing industry behaviour
– Financing national plans

Moderated by    VAITHEESWARAN Vijay     Correspondent    The Economist     USA
Panellists    GULABCHAND Ajit     Chairman and Managing …    Hindustan Construction Company Ltd     India
Panellists    LEAHY Sir Terry     Chief Executive    Tesco Plc     United Kingdom
Panellists    PATEL Ebrahim     Minister of Economic D…         South Africa
Panellists    SHI ZHENGRONG     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Suntech Power Holdings Co. Ltd     Australia
Panellists    Lord STERN     IG Patel Professor of …    London School of Economics and Politi…     United Kingdom

107: The Reality of Terrorism

Ten years after 9/11, how have terrorist methods and threats evolved?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Risks and incubators of terrorism since 9/11
– Countering terrorism’s narrative
– Risk response and resilience

Moderated by    CHIPMAN John     Director-General and C…    International Institute for Strategic…     United Kingdom
Panellists    CHIDAMBARAM Palaniappan     Minister of Home Affai…         India
Panellists    CRONIN Audrey Kurth     Professor of Strategy    U.S. National War College     USA
Panellists    KHAN Imran     Chairman, Pakistan Teh…         Pakistan
Panellists    TAHIR-UL-QADRI Muhammad     Founder    Minhaj-ul-Quran International     Canada
Panellists    TERTRAIS Bruno     Senior Research Fellow    Fondation pour la Recherche Strat…     France

108: From Life without Limbs to Life without Limits

A true example of the power of the human spirit, Nick Vujicic has overcome a seemingly insurmountable disability.

How can we gain inspiration from his experience to face the challenges that come our way, and live our lives without limits?

Introduced by    YANKLOWITZ Shmuly     Founder and President    Uri L’Tzedek     USA
Panellists    VUJICIC Nick     Founder and President    Life Without Limbs     Australia

109: Leadership under Pressure

In January 2009, a jet carrying 155 passengers and crew made an emergency landing into the freezing waters of the Hudson River near Manhattan – all survived the experience.

The airplane’s pilot, Captain Chesley Sullenberger, shares his insights into the factors that made the difference between triumph and tragedy on that fateful flight.

Introduced by    WEST Tiffany     Director, Programme De…         USA
Panellists    SULLENBERGER Chesley B.     Founder    Safety Reliability Methods Inc.     USA

110: China’s Impact on Global Trade and Growth

The year 2011 marks a decade since China joined the World Trade Organization.

How will Chinese economic growth continue to influence global trading patterns?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- China’s export growth model
– The future of multilateral trade

Chaired by    SUTHERLAND Peter D.     Chairman    Goldman Sachs International     Ireland
Panellists    CHEN DEMING     Minister of Commerce o…         People’s Republic of China
Panellists    LAMY Pascal     Director-General, Worl…         France

112: A Conversation with William J. Clinton

[No description]

Chaired by    SCHWAB Klaus     Founder and Executive …         Germany
Panellists    CLINTON William J.     Founder    William J. Clinton Foundation     USA

114: Has the West Failed in Afghanistan?

In Afghanistan, the troops of the international community of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) states are more and more on the defensive. The Taliban is gradually gaining terrain. Tribal culture, corruption and cultivation of opium hinder the building of democracy.

Has the West failed in its required reconstruction in Afghanistan? Do drug cultivation, corruption and failing democratic structures make Afghanistan ungovernable? What responsibility does the West carry? What are the consequences for Afghanistan and the West?

Moderated by    WILLE Susanne F.     Journalist    Swiss Television SF     Switzerland
Panellists    VAN BIJLERT Martine     Co-Director, Afghanist…
Panellists    DARYA Fahrad     Singer, Composer, Peac…         Afghanistan
Panellists    SIKORSKI Radoslaw Tomasz     Minister of Foreign Af…         Poland
Panellists    TILGNER Ulrich     Journalist, Germany
Panellists    YACOOBI Sakena     Executive Director    Afghan Institute of Learning     Afghanistan

113: Summer Davos in Dalian Reception

Xia Deren, Party Secretary, Dalian CPC Municipal Committee, People’s Republic of China, invites participants and their spouses to a reception to celebrate Dalian hosting the Summer Davos in 2011. The reception will feature live music and a selection of traditional Chinese hors d’oeuvres.

115: Asset Allocation Heatmap: Betting on Global Risks

Successful investing requires understanding and capturing the opportunities created by risk. How can investors create portfolios that focus on key global risks?

This interactive WorkSpace will explore trends and investment decisions associated with:

- Resource scarcity
– Supply chain disruptions
– Exchange rate volatility/currency stability
– Cybersecurity

Facilitated by    STEINBERG Kevin     Chief Operating Office…         Canada
With    AEGERTER Daniel S.     Chairman    Armada Investment Group AG     Switzerland
With    AVERSA Stefano     President and Member o…    AlixPartners LLP     Italy
With    FABER Joachim     Chief Executive Officer    Allianz Global Investors AG     Germany
With    JAIN Anshu     Member of the Manageme…    Deutsche Bank AG     United Kingdom
With    LONG David     President    Liberty Mutual Group     USA
With    MINTZ Daniel R.     Founding Managing Dire…    Olympus Capital Holdings Asia     USA
With    O’BRIEN Richard     President and Chief Ex…    Newmont Mining Corporation     USA
With    PARR Gary     Vice Chairman & Member…    Lazard Frères & Co.     USA

116: From Vision to Action: Africa’s Next Chapter

Over the past decade, Africa’s GDP growth topped the global average, lifting over 100 million people out of extreme poverty. What steps are leaders taking to ensure that inclusive growth continues to be at the heart of the continent’s development agenda?

Discussion Leaders    BRABECK-LETMATHE Peter     Chairman of the Board    Nestlé SA     Austria
Discussion Leaders    CARROLL Cynthia     Chief Executive    Anglo American Plc     USA
Discussion Leaders    DUKE Mike     President and Chief Ex…    Wal-Mart Stores Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    TINUBU Jubril Adewale     Group Chief Executive    Oando Plc     Nigeria
Discussion Leaders    WALSH Paul S.     Chief Executive    Diageo Plc     United Kingdom
Moderated by    MOHOHLO Linah K.     Governor of the Bank o…         Botswana
Opening Remarks by    ANNAN Kofi     Secretary-General, Uni…         Ghana
Panellists    KIKWETE Jakaya M.     President of Tanzania         Tanzania
Panellists    TSVANGIRAI Morgan     Prime Minister of Zimb…         Zimbabwe
Panellists    ZENAWI Meles     Prime Minister of Ethi…         Ethiopia
Panellists    ZUMA Jacob G.     President of South Africa         South Africa

117: An Economic Narrative for the 21st Century

The 20th century saw the rise and fall of Communism, while the beginning of the 21st century has already introduced a major crisis in market capitalism.

What should be the economic narrative for the 21st century?

Discussion Leaders    COLLIER Paul     Professor of Economics…    University of Oxford     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    FRENKEL Jacob A.     Chairman JPMorgan Chas…    JPMorgan Chase & Co.     Israel
Discussion Leaders    JOHNSON Simon     Ronald A. Kurtz, Profe…    MIT – Sloan School of Management     USA
Discussion Leaders    LU Kevin     Regional Director, Asi…    Multilateral Investment Guarantee Age…     USA
Discussion Leaders    MAGNANI Marco     Managing Director    Mediobanca SpA     Italy
Discussion Leaders    RANGAN Subramanian     The Abu Dhabi Crown Pr…    INSEAD     USA
Discussion Leaders    SCHARMER C. Otto     Senior Lecturer, Organ…    MIT – Sloan School of Management     Germany
Discussion Leaders    STIGLITZ Joseph E.     Professor    Columbia University     USA
Moderated by    RAMO Joshua Cooper     Managing Director    Kissinger Associates Inc.     USA

118: Educating Tomorrow’s Leaders

The financial crisis revealed shortcomings in the curricula of institutions tasked with developing leaders.

How should institutions change their curricula to better prepare tomorrow’s leaders?

Discussion Leaders    BECKER Carol     Dean, School of the Arts    Columbia University     USA
Discussion Leaders    JAIN Dipak C.     Dean Designate    INSEAD     USA
Discussion Leaders    LIKIERMAN Andrew     Dean    London Business School     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    MOSTAFAVI Mohsen     Dean    Harvard University Graduate School of…     USA
Discussion Leaders    NOHRIA Nitin     Dean    Harvard Business School     USA
Discussion Leaders    PROBST Gilbert J. B.     Managing Director and …         Switzerland
Discussion Leaders    VANHONACKER Wilfried     Dean    Moscow School of Management Skolkovo     Belgium
Moderated by    TURLEY James S.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Ernst & Young     USA

119: Exploring the Extremes

The worlds above the clouds and out at sea continue to fascinate explorers, engineers and scientists. What draws us to these extreme environments, and what are the experiences of those who dare to go there?

Discussion Leaders    LEVINE Alison     Mountaineer and President    DareDevil Strategies     USA
Discussion Leaders    STONE Greg     Senior Vice-President …    Conservation International     USA
Discussion Leaders    SULLENBERGER Chesley B.     Founder    Safety Reliability Methods Inc.     USA
Moderated by    RIS Bud     President and Chief Ex…    New England Aquarium     USA

120: The Rise and Decline of Languages

More than 7,000 languages are spoken around the globe, yet every two weeks one vanishes forever.

How do the rise and decline of languages affect memories of the past and shape the future?

Discussion Leaders    BHABHA Homi K.     Anne F. Rothenberg Pro…    Harvard University     USA
Discussion Leaders    BOKOVA Irina Gueorguieva     Director-General, Unit…         Bulgaria
Discussion Leaders    KOTHARI Brij     Director    PlanetRead     India
Discussion Leaders    LIEBERMAN Zachary     Artist and Computer Pr…    thesystemis     USA
Discussion Leaders    PARKER Philip     Professor of Managemen…    INSEAD     USA
Moderated by    SIMMONS Ruth J.     President    Brown University     USA

121: Getting Things Done: Macro and Micro Strategies

Information technology allows a million people to collaborate in real time, while research in behavioural economics reveals why one person may join the million and why another will not. How do we achieve results at both ends of the human scale?

Discussion Leaders    ARIELY Dan     Professor of Psycholog…    Duke University     USA
Discussion Leaders    ARMSTRONG Peter     Director    OneWorld UK     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    GOPALAKRISHNAN Kris     Chief Executive Office…    Infosys Technologies Ltd     India
Discussion Leaders    NGUYEN THIEN NHAN     Deputy Prime Minister …         Vietnam
Discussion Leaders    SINGER Tania     Director, Department o…    Max-Planck Institute for Human Cognit…     Germany
Discussion Leaders    TAPSCOTT Don     Chairman    Moxie Insight     Canada
Moderated by    COHON Jared     President    Carnegie Mellon University     USA

240: Provocative Art

“They always say time changes things, but you actually have to change them yourself.” – Andy Warhol

How does art provoke society and society provoke art?

Discussion Leaders    ELIASSON Olafur     Artist    Studio Olafur Eliasson     Iceland
Moderated by    ANTONELLI Paola     Senior Curator, Depart…    Museum of Modern Art     Italy

122: Laying the Foundation for a Latin American Decade

One measure of real progress in Latin America is that 40 million people have been moved out of poverty.

What strategic challenges should the continent focus on to continue its progress and increase its impact as a global player?

Discussion Leaders    DE AGUIAR PATRIOTA Ant…     Minister of External R…         Brazil
Discussion Leaders    CALDERÓN Felipe     President of Mexico         Mexico
Discussion Leaders    FERNÁNDEZ Leonel     President of the Domin…         Dominican Republic
Discussion Leaders    FREIRE Andy     Chairman    Endeavor     Argentina
Discussion Leaders    MARTINELLI Ricardo     President of Panama         Panama
Discussion Leaders    NAÍM Moisés     Senior Associate, Inte…    Carnegie Endowment for International …     USA
Discussion Leaders    SANTOS Juan Manuel     President of Colombia         Colombia
Discussion Leaders    SARMIENTO Sergio     Editor-in-Chief and Vi…    TV Azteca SA de CV     Mexico
Moderated by    ARGUETA DE BARILLAS Ma…     Senior Director, Head …         El Salvador

123: Role Models for the 21st Century

It is a common lament that the current generation does not have role models to inspire it.

Who are the leaders from the past that are role models for the future?

Discussion Leaders    CHAPMAN Nigel     Chief Executive Officer    Plan International     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    GARTON ASH Timothy     Professor of European …    University of Oxford     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    KOEHN Nancy     James E. Robison Profe…    Harvard Business School     USA
Discussion Leaders    O’BRIEN Damien     Global Chairman and Ch…    Egon Zehnder International SA     Australia
Discussion Leaders    SILVA Raquel Helen     Global Changemaker    British Council     Brazil
Discussion Leaders    SUTTON Robert I.     Professor, Management …    Stanford University     USA

124: Women of Will: Shakespeare’s Wonderful and Witty Women

Shakespeare was ahead of his time in portraying forceful, brilliant and ambitious women. How do his plays reinforce the importance of bringing new and diverse perspectives into decision-making?

Discussion Leaders    ADELMAN Carol     President    Movers & Shakespeares     USA
Discussion Leaders    ADELMAN Ken     Vice-President    Movers & Shakespeares     USA

___

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Davos in Winter


Davos 2011: Tuesday/Wednesday

January 23 2011

The programme day-by-day of the 2011 World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos – or Davos-Klosters, as it became in 2008.

Title: Shared Norms for the New Reality. Will the new Congress Centre have the intimacy of the old?

The WEF’s otherwise vastly improved website is not showing the full programme. Strangely, it is accessible only to participants. I have borrowed a password. Last year I could link to every session with a single cut and paste.

Registered participants get everything at an online Kiosk – which is part of the WEF parallel interactive site called WELCOM. There’s also a good mobile app for participants and a useless one for “fans”.

Is it me, or is some of this programming flat and routine? Session information is more or less as given, including numbering. I have taken out times and locations. I can’t link to speaker biographies or communities and initiatives.

The anti-Davos, the World Social Forum, takes place in Dakar, Senegal on February 6-11.

___

Tuesday, January 25

1: Reception

Professor Klaus Schwab and Mrs Hilde Schwab, together with the Managing Board, will host a welcome reception to reconfirm the spirit of friendship and community that is the hallmark of the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting.

2: Briefing Session

Professor Klaus Schwab and his colleagues will host a special session where they will provide an overview of the Forum’s vision. This session is particularly intended for all newcomers, but also for those who would like to know more about how the Forum serves its members and global constituents.

___

Wednesday, January 26

3: Insights on China

How will political priorities, economic realities and business issues shape China’s growth and social dynamics?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Indigenous innovation policies
– Areas of legal reform
– Future of the real estate sector
– Impact of media

Challenger    QUELCH John A.     Dean-Elect    China Europe International Business S…     USA
Moderated by    CHU Victor L. L.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    First Eastern Investment Group     United Kingdom
Panellists    LIU JIREN     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Neusoft Corporation     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    WANG BOMING     Editor-in-Chief    Caijing Magazine     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    WU ZHIPAN     Executive Vice-Preside…    Peking University     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    ZHANG XIN     Chief Executive Officer    SOHO China Limited     Hong Kong SAR

4: Connectedness: An Update

How will online and mobile behaviours be reshaped over the coming years, and by whom?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Mobile communications
– Consumer and business applications
– Influence of the Chinese market
– Venture capital perspective

Challenger    PARKER Sean     Managing Partner    Founders Fund LLC     USA
Moderated by    JARVIS Jeff     Blogger, Buzzmachine.c…    Graduate School of Journalism (CUNY)     USA
Panellists    BREYER Jim     Partner    Accel Partners     USA
Panellists    LAURS Ilja     Chief Executive Officer    GetJar     Lithuania
Panellists    WANG JIANZHOU     Chairman    China Mobile Communications Corporation     People’s Republic of China

5: Defining Shared Norms

In an increasingly interconnected and interdependent world, how do we define and develop shared norms?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Defining norms, values, principles and behaviours
– Sources of norms
– Cross-cultural considerations
– Embedding norms in an organization

Moderated by    WALLIS Jim     Editor-in-Chief and Ch…    Sojourners     USA
Panellists    ARIELY Dan     Professor of Psycholog…    Duke University     USA
Panellists    AVNI Ronit     Founder and Executive …    Just Vision     USA
Panellists    SEIDMAN Dov     Founder and Chief Exec…    LRN     USA
Panellists    TURKSON Peter Kodwo Ap…     Cardinal and President    Secretariat of the Pontifical Council…     Vatican City State

6: The Energy Agenda in 2011

What are the trends and norms shaping the energy agenda?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The market for clean energy
– National competitiveness and energy efficiency
– Energy security challenges

Moderated by    BIROL Fatih     Chief Economist    International Energy Agency     Turkey
Panellists    DERIPASKA Oleg V.     Chief Executive Officer    Basic Element     Russian Federation
Panellists    AL FALIH Khalid A.     President and Chief Ex…    Saudi Aramco     Saudi Arabia
Panellists    KOJIMA Yorihiko     Chairman of the Board    Mitsubishi Corporation     Japan
Panellists    KRENICKI John     Vice-Chairman, GE, and…    GE Energy     USA
Panellists    DE MARGERIE Christophe     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Total     France

7: The Environment Agenda in 2011

How will the environment agenda change in light of current trends and norms?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Impact of resource scarcity
– Post-Cancún priorities
– Private sector and bottom-up solutions

Challenger    KRUPP Fred     President    Environmental Defense Fund     USA
Moderated by    ESTY Dan     Professor    Yale University     USA
Panellists    HAO JIMING     Academician and Profes…    Tsinghua University     People’s Republic of China
Panellists    HASLESTAD Joergen Ole     President and Chief Ex…    Yara International ASA     Norway
Panellists    MOLEWA Edna     Minister of Water and …         South Africa
Panellists    TANTI Tulsi R.     Chairman and Managing …    Suzlon Energy Limited     India

8: The International Financial System: Back on Track?

After recent interventions at the national and international levels, how stable and resilient is the international financial system today?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Short- and long-term impact of Basel III Accord
– G20 and international regulatory reform
– The future of the universal banking model

Moderated by    THOMSON Robert     Editor-in-Chief, Dow J…    Dow Jones & Company Inc.     Australia
Panellists    BROSENS Frank     Co-Founder    Taconic Capital Advisors LP     USA
Panellists    CHILDS David     Managing Partner    Clifford Chance LLP     United Kingdom
Panellists    COHN Gary D.     President and Chief Op…    The Goldman Sachs Group Inc.     USA
Panellists    LIU MINGKANG     Chairman, China Bankin…         People’s Republic of China
Panellists    SANDS Peter     Group Chief Executive    Standard Chartered     United Kingdom

9: Global Risk Update

What are the global risks at the top of the agenda in 2011?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Emerging security threats
– Economic disparity
– Water-food-energy nexus
– Pandemics

Moderated by    SNOWER Dennis J.     President    The Kiel Institute for the World Economy     USA
Panellists    AMANO Yukiya     Director-General, Inte…         Japan
Panellists    FLYNN Timothy P.     Chairman    KPMG International     USA
Panellists    GLASER Daniel     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Marsh Inc. (M&MC)     USA
Panellists    ROBERTS Julian     Chief Executive Officer    Old Mutual Plc     United Kingdom
Panellists    VERWAAYEN Ben J.     Chief Executive Officer    Alcatel-Lucent     Netherlands

10: What Is the New Economic Reality?

The notion of a “new normal” is premature given the fragility of the global economy, but the elements of a new economic reality appear to now be in place.

In partnership with the World Economic Forum, Time magazine hosts this debate focusing on the elements of the new economic reality.

Moderated by    ELLIOTT Michael J.     Editor, Time Internati…    Time Magazine     USA
Panellists    PREMJI Azim     Chairman    Wipro Limited     India
Panellists    ROUBINI Nouriel     Professor of Economics…    New York University     USA
Panellists    SORRELL Sir Martin     Chief Executive Officer    WPP Plc     United Kingdom
Panellists    TURLEY James S.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Ernst & Young     USA
Panellists    ZHU Min     Special Adviser, Inter…         People’s Republic of China

11: The Future of Employment

The world economy has haemorrhaged more than 30 million jobs since 2007, three-quarters of them lost from advanced economies. Slow job growth is seen as the weakest link in the global recovery, challenging both developed and emerging economies.

In partnership with the World Economic Forum, CNBC hosts this debate focusing on what business, education and government must do to boost employment.

Moderated by    BARTIROMO Maria     Anchor, CNBC’s Closing…    CNBC     USA
Panellists    GUTMANN Amy     President    University of Pennsylvania     USA
Panellists    HUFFINGTON Arianna     Co-Founder and Editor-…    Huffington Post     USA
Panellists    JENNINGS Philip J.     General Secretary    UNI Global Union     United Kingdom
Panellists    JOERRES Jeffrey     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Manpower Inc.     USA
Panellists    MAZUMDAR-SHAW Kiran     Chairperson and Managi…    Biocon India     India
Panellists    SILBERT Barry     Founder and Chief Exec…    SecondMarket     USA

12: The Role of Business in Development

As global growth shifts to the developing world, what should be the role of business in these countries?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Sustainable development
– Public-private partnerships
– Infrastructure investment
– Skills and entrepreneurship

Moderated by    ROTTENBERG Linda     Co-Founder and Chief E…    Endeavor     USA
Panellists    DAMES Brian A.     Chief Executive Officer    Eskom Holdings Limited     South Africa
Panellists    FLETCHER Paul     Senior Partner    Actis LLP     United Kingdom
Panellists    IZOSIMOV Alexander V.     President and Chief Ex…    VimpelCom Ltd     Russian Federation
Panellists    MARTINELLI Ricardo     President of Panama         Panama
Panellists    MITTAL Sunil Bharti     Chairman and Group Chi…    Bharti Enterprises     India

13: IdeasLab: Design for the New Reality

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on:

Idea 1: Urban renewal for social and economic development
Idea 2: Product design paradigm for sustainability
Idea 3: Scarcity-driven design
Idea 4: Gaining understanding from data visualization

Discussion Leaders    BLY Adam     Founder and Chief Exec…    Seed     Canada
Discussion Leaders    INGELS Bjarke     Architect    Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG)     Denmark
Discussion Leaders    MORI Toshiko     Robert P. Hubbard Prof…    Harvard University Graduate School of…     Japan
Discussion Leaders    SKIBSTED Jens Martin     Founding Partner    Skibsted Ideation A/S     Denmark
Facilitated by    ANTONELLI Paola     Senior Curator, Depart…    Museum of Modern Art     Italy

14: IdeasLab with INSEAD: Leading in a Hyper-connected World

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will explore the impact of hyper-connectivity on:

Idea 1: Societal change
Idea 2: Business success
Idea 3: Communities and teams
Idea 4: Knowledge and applications

Discussion Leaders    DUTTA Soumitra     The Roland Berger Chai…    INSEAD     India
Discussion Leaders    IBARRA Herminia     The Cora Chaired Profe…    INSEAD     USA
Discussion Leaders    JAIN Dipak C.     Dean Designate    INSEAD     USA
Discussion Leaders    PARKER Philip     Professor of Managemen…    INSEAD     USA
Facilitated by    PASCALE Richard T.     Associate Fellow    Saïd Business School, University…     USA
Introduced by    BROWN J. Frank     Dean    INSEAD     USA

15: Ensuring Inclusive Growth

With industrialized and emerging economies facing the possibility of a jobless global recovery, how can national policies and international cooperation be structured to advance a more inclusive model of economic growth?

Discussion Leaders    CHIBEBE Wellington     Secretary-General    Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU)     Zimbabwe
Discussion Leaders    EBRARD CASAUBÓN Marcel…     Mayor of Mexico City         Mexico
Discussion Leaders    GODREJ Jamshyd N.     Chairman and Managing …    Godrej & Boyce Mfg Co. Ltd     India
Discussion Leaders    KOH Annie     Associate Professor of…    Singapore Management University     Singapore
Discussion Leaders    LEVIN Richard C.     President    Yale University     USA
Discussion Leaders    AL NEHAYAN Sheikh Khal…     Chairman    Bin Zayed Group     United Arab Emirates
Discussion Leaders    OKONJO-IWEALA Ngozi     Managing Director, Wor…         Nigeria
Facilitated by    BLOOM David E.     Clarence James Gamble …    Harvard School of Public Health     USA

16: Insights on India

What are the economic changes, political priorities and global issues shaping India?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The state of government and business relations
– Priorities in infrastructure development
– The political and economic challenges of inclusive growth

Moderated by    GUPTA Shekhar     Editor-in-Chief    The Indian Express Newspapers Ltd     India
Panellists    AHLUWALIA Montek Singh     Deputy Chairman, Plann…         India
Panellists    BHARTIA Hari S.     Co-Chairman and Managi…    Jubilant Bhartia Group     India
Panellists    MCGRAW Harold     Chairman, President an…    McGraw-Hill Companies     USA
Panellists    NAIK Sandeep A.     Co-Head    Apax Partners India Advisers Pvt. Ltd     India
Panellists    RAJAN Raghuram G.     Eric J. Gleacher Disti…    The University of Chicago Booth Schoo…     India
Panellists    SRINATH NARASIMHAN Ingrid     Secretary-General and …    Civicus: World Alliance for Citizen P…     India

17: Innovation-driven Growth: An Update

What are the technological innovations reshaping industries?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Reshaping business models
– Redesigning value chains
– Rethinking consumer access and engagement

Moderated by    GREEN William D.     Chairman    Accenture     USA
Panellists    EVANS Stuart     Chief Executive Officer    Novacem     United Kingdom
Panellists    GODDARD Jules     Research Fellow, Manag…    London Business School     United Kingdom
Panellists    NELSON Jonathan M.     Chief Executive Officer    Providence Equity Partners LLC     USA
Panellists    SINGH Malvinder M.     Group Chairman    Fortis Healthcare Limited     India
Panellists    VERWAAYEN Ben J.     Chief Executive Officer    Alcatel-Lucent     Netherlands

18: The State of Manufacturing: A Global Update

What is the state of global manufacturing after the Great Recession?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The evolution of global supply chains
– The challenges of protectionism and unemployment
– Managing commodity price volatility
– Meeting the sustainability mandate

Challenger    RAINA Jyrki     General Secretary    International Metalworkers’ Federatio…     Finland
Moderated by    QUIGLEY James H.     Global Chief Executive…    Deloitte     USA
Panellists    CLEMENT Tony     Minister of Industry o…         Canada
Panellists    DAVIES Rob     Minister of Trade and …         South Africa
Panellists    RUIA Prashant     Group Chief Executive    Essar Group     India
Panellists    WALKER Don J.     Chief Executive Officer    Magna International Inc.     Canada

19: Personalized Medicine

How will genomics and personalized medicine change our lives in the decade to come?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The future of genetic profiling
– The personalization of prevention
– Accessibility to personalized medicine

Moderated by    GUPTA Sanjay     Chief Medical Correspo…    CNN International     USA
Panellists    AGUS David     Professor of Medicine …    University of Southern California (USC)     USA
Panellists    COLLINS Francis S.     Director    National Institutes of Health     USA
Panellists    HALVORSON George C.     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Kaiser Foundation Health Plan Inc.     USA
Panellists    ROTHBERG Jonathan M.     Founder, Chief Executi…    Ion Torrent     USA

20: Powerful Portraits: What’s in a Face?

“A man would rather leave behind him the portrait of his spirit than a portrait of his face.” – Robert Louis Stevenson

How does renowned portrait photographer Platon capture the essence of his subjects?

Introduced by    MONCK Adrian     Managing Director, Hea…         United Kingdom
Panellists    ANTONIOU Platon     Photographer, USA         United Kingdom

21: Rethinking Natural Resources

Which natural resources are of rising regional and international concern?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- A new resource geography
– National and international governance of resources
– Economic and geopolitical implications of mismanagement
– Effects on inclusive growth

Challenger    TERCEK Mark R.     President and CEO    The Nature Conservancy     USA
Moderated by    Lord STERN     IG Patel Professor of …    London School of Economics and Politi…     United Kingdom
Panellists    ALBANESE Tom     Chief Executive    Rio Tinto Plc     USA
Panellists    HERSH Kenneth A.     Founder and Chief Exec…    NGP Energy Capital Management     USA
Panellists    PELEG Amir     Founder and Chief Exec…    TaKaDu Ltd     Israel
Panellists    SEATON David T.     Chief Operating Officer    Fluor Corporation     USA

22: Opening Buffet

Participants and their spouses are cordially invited to a buffet in the Congress Centre.

23: Insights on Africa

What are the economic changes, political priorities and business issues shaping Africa?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Regional development opportunities
– Business climate
– Governance priorities

Discussion Leaders    ABIOLA-COSTELLO Hafsat     Founder and Chief Exec…    China-Africa Bridge     Nigeria
Moderated by    GICHURU Julie     Group Digital Business…    Royal Media Services     Kenya
Panellists    BEKKER Koos     Chief Executive Officer    Naspers Ltd     South Africa
Panellists    NHLEKO Phuthuma F.     Group President and Ch…    MTN Group Ltd     South Africa
Panellists    OKONJO-IWEALA Ngozi     Managing Director, Wor…         Nigeria
Panellists    SACHS Jeffrey D.     Director, The Earth In…         USA

24: The War against Corruption

With corruption as a major source of economic and political instability, how can real progress be made in the fight against it?

This WorkStudio will address the following dimensions:

- Corporate compliance
– Effective public-private partnerships
– G20 engagement

Co-Facilitated by    PIETH Mark     Professor of Criminal …    University of Basel     Switzerland
Co-Facilitated by    DE SWARDT Cobus     Managing Director    Transparency International     South Africa
Discussion Leaders    BHARADWAJ Neeraj     Managing Director    Accel India Growth Management Company…     USA
Discussion Leaders    DAWOOD Hussain     Chairman    The Dawood Group     Pakistan
Discussion Leaders    DIPUO PETERS Elizabeth     Minister of Energy of …         South Africa
Discussion Leaders    HU SHULI     Editor-in-Chief    Caixin Media     People’s Republic of China
Discussion Leaders    INSULZA José Miguel     Secretary-General, Org…         Chile
Discussion Leaders    O’BRIEN Richard     President and Chief Ex…    Newmont Mining Corporation     USA
Discussion Leaders    SANUSI Sanusi Lamido     Governor of the Centra…         Nigeria

25: New Norms for Corporations

How will changing norms reshape corporate behaviour?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Internalizing externalities
– Corporate citizenship and talent management
– Role of stakeholders versus shareholders

Challenger    GEORGE William W.     Professor of Managemen…    Harvard Business School     USA
Moderated by    BAKKER Peter     Chief Executive Officer    TNT     Netherlands
Panellists    GALLAGHER Brian A.     President and Chief Ex…    United Way Worldwide     USA
Panellists    NAYAR Vineet     Vice-Chairman and Chie…    HCL Technologies Ltd     India
Panellists    ROGERS James E.     Chairman, President an…    Duke Energy Corporation     USA
Panellists    WITTIG Martin     Chief Executive Officer    Roland Berger Strategy Consultants GmbH     Germany

26: The Resilient Recovery: An Update

With concern growing over trade and currency wars, how resilient is the global recovery?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- The threat from sovereign debt
– New sources of protectionism
– The challenge of a jobless recovery
– The threat from currency wars

Moderated by    KEENE Tom     Host    Bloomberg Radio & Television     USA
Panellists    EVANS John     General Secretary    Trade Union Advisory Committee to the…     United Kingdom
Panellists    NIEDERAUER Duncan     Chief Executive Officer    NYSE Euronext     USA
Panellists    PARISOT Laurence     President    MEDEF     France
Panellists    ROGOFF Kenneth     Thomas D. Cabot Profes…    Harvard University     USA
Panellists    SAKONG Il     Chairman, Presidential…         Republic of Korea

27: Insights on the Middle East and North Africa

What are the economic changes, political priorities and business issues shaping the Middle East and North Africa?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Investment climate
– Employment outlook
– Regional demand
– Competitiveness challenges
– Impact of Tunisia

Moderated by    AL ORAIBI Mina     Bureau Chief, Washingt…    Asharq Alawsat Newspaper     United Kingdom
Panellists    AHMED Masood     Director, Middle East …    International Monetary Fund (IMF)     Pakistan
Panellists    DABDOUB Ibrahim S.     Group Chief Executive …    National Bank of Kuwait     USA
Panellists    AL KHALIFA Sheikh Moha…     Chief Executive    Bahrain Economic Development Board     Bahrain
Panellists    KHOURY Samer S.     Executive Vice-Preside…    Consolidated Contractors Company (CCC)     France
Panellists    RIMAWI Ennis     Managing Director    Catalyst Private Equity – Cleantech Fund     Jordan

28: Music for Social Change

“Music gives soul to the universe, wings to the mind and flight to the imagination.” – Plato

How can music transform communities and unite people?

Moderated by    MENDOZA Lorenzo A.     Chief Executive Officer    Empresas Polar     Venezuela
Panellists    DRAKOS Margo     Co-Founder and Chief O…    InstantEncore.com     USA
Panellists    HAEFLIGER Michael E.     Executive and Artistic…    Lucerne Festival     Switzerland
Panellists    JOHNSON Mark     Founder    Playing for Change     USA
Panellists    MORI Toshiko     Robert P. Hubbard Prof…    Harvard University Graduate School of…     Japan
Panellists    OSBORNE Nigel     Professor, School of Arts    The University of Edinburgh     United Kingdom

29: Preparing for New Realities

If structural change is a new reality, then what major adjustments should leaders prepare for, and how?

In collaboration with the Forum’s community of Young Global Leaders, this workshop will address the following dimensions:

- Global problem-solving: beyond nation states
– Universities as centres of collaborative learning
– Government as a platform
– Delivering collaborative healthcare
– News and media in the digital age
– Education systems for the 21st century
– Democracy 2.0

Discussion Leaders    BECKETT Charlie     Director, POLIS    London School of Economics and Politi…     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    BRADFORD Anu     Member of the Board    SITRA (Finnish National Fund for Rese…     Finland
Discussion Leaders    CONDO Arturo     President    INCAE Business School     Ecuador
Discussion Leaders    HAJI Priya     Co-Founder and Former …    WorldofGood.com by eBay Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    KHAGRAM Sanjeev     Professor of Public Af…    University of Washington, iScale (Inn…     USA
Discussion Leaders    LASERNA Juan Mario     Senator, Colombia         Colombia
Discussion Leaders    ZARUR Andrey     Managing Partner    Kodiak Venture Partners     Mexico
Facilitated by    TAPSCOTT Don     Chairman    Moxie Insight     Canada

30: The Science Agenda in 2011

What are the trends and norms shaping the science agenda in 2011?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Public and private R&D trends
– New forms of partnership
– Emerging policy priorities

Challenger    MAYNARD Andrew D.     Director, Risk Science…    University of Michigan     United Kingdom
Moderated by    CAMPBELL Philip     Editor-in-Chief    Nature     United Kingdom
Panellists    COLLINS Francis S.     Director    National Institutes of Health     USA
Panellists    HEUER Rolf-Dieter     Director-General    European Organization for Nuclear Res…     Germany
Panellists    JOHNSON Ray     Senior Vice-President …    Lockheed Martin Corporation     USA
Panellists    VIEHBACHER Christopher A     Chief Executive Officer    Sanofi-Aventis     Germany

31: The Security Agenda in 2011

Which states are of greatest regional and international concern?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Current hot spots
– Future sources of instability
– Prospects for international intervention

Moderated by    CHIPMAN John     Director-General and C…    International Institute for Strategic…     United Kingdom
Panellists    ANNAN Kofi     Secretary-General, Uni…         Ghana
Panellists    ARBOUR Louise     President and Chief Ex…    International Crisis Group (ICG)     Canada
Panellists    JAHANGIR Munizae     Special Correspondent …    Express TV     Pakistan
Panellists    MOUSSA Amre     Secretary-General, Lea…         Egypt
Panellists    YAN XUETONG     Dean, Institute of Int…    Tsinghua University     People’s Republic of China

32: The New Reality of Cybersecurity

What are the most challenging threats to cybersecurity, and how will they shape online behaviour?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Network infrastructure and security
– Financial system security
– Building risk resilience

Moderated by    ZITTRAIN Jonathan     Professor of Law and P…    Harvard University     USA
Panellists    CONDE Cristóbal     President and Chief Ex…    SunGard     Chile
Panellists    JOHNSON Kevin     Chief Executive Officer    Juniper Networks Inc.     USA
Panellists    KASIVISWANATHAN SHANMUGAM     Minister for Home Affa…         Singapore
Panellists    KUDELSKI André     Chairman of the Board …    Kudelski Group     Switzerland
Panellists    MUNDIE Craig     Chief Research and Str…    Microsoft Corporation     USA

33: Digital Convergence

What are the business innovations, end-user needs and policy frameworks shaping the next wave of digital convergence?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Digital innovation
– Consumer empowerment
– Enabling policies
– Scaling socio-economic impact

Moderated by    KIRKPATRICK David     Technology Columnist    The Daily Beast     USA
Panellists    BOONSTRA Claire     Co-Founder    Layar     Netherlands
Panellists    INAKAGE Masa     Dean and Professor, Gr…    Keio University     Japan
Panellists    LE MEUR Loïc     Founder and Chief Exec…    Seesmic     France
Panellists    TARKOFF Rob     Senior Vice-President …    Adobe Systems Inc.     USA

34: Insights on East Asia

What are the economic changes, political priorities and business issues shaping East Asia?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Employment and growth challenges
– Currency and investment strategies
– Regional relations with China

Moderated by    MAHBUBANI Kishore     Dean    Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy     Singapore
Panellists    AMRANAND Piyasvasti     President    Thai Airways International     Thailand
Panellists    AZMAN MOKHTAR     Managing Director    Khazanah Nasional Berhad     Malaysia
Panellists    HAYASHI Yasuo     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Japan External Trade Organization (JE…     Japan
Panellists    KWAK SEUNG-JUN     Chairman, Presidential…         Republic of Korea
Panellists    RAJASEKARAN Govindasamy     Secretary-General    Malaysian Trades Union Congress     Malaysia

35: IdeasLab with the London School of Economics: Doing Better with Less

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on:

Idea 1: Public management
Idea 2: Financing education
Idea 3: Tackling climate change
Idea 4: Incentives and performance

Discussion Leaders    BANDIERA Oriana     Professor of Economics    London School of Economics and Politi…     Italy
Discussion Leaders    BARR Nicholas     Professor of Public Ec…    London School of Economics and Politi…     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    DAVIES Howard     Director    London School of Economics and Politi…     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    Lord STERN     IG Patel Professor of …    London School of Economics and Politi…     United Kingdom
Facilitated by    GUTMANN Amy     President    University of Pennsylvania     USA

36: IdeasLab with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT): Risks and Opportunities of the Water Food-Energy Nexus

Expert presentations and in-depth group discussions will focus on:

Idea 1: The water-food-energy nexus – train wreck or opportunity?
Idea 2: Technological solutions for food and fuel
Idea 3: Resilient strategies – from individual households to globalizing regions
Idea 4: Reshaping the water-food-energy nexus for globalized agriculture and rapid urbanization

Discussion Leaders    GLASMEIER Amy     Professor of Geography…    MIT – Department of Urban Studies and…     USA
Discussion Leaders    MONIZ Ernest J.     Professor and Director…    Massachusetts Institute of Technology…     USA
Discussion Leaders    PRATHER Kristala     Assistant Professor of…    Massachusetts Institute of Technology     USA
Discussion Leaders    WESCOAT James     Aga Khan Professor of …    MIT – Department of Urban Studies and…     USA
Facilitated by    USEEM Michael     Professor of Managemen…    The Wharton School, University of Pen…     USA
Introduced by    HOCKFIELD Susan     President    Massachusetts Institute of Technology…     USA

37: Building Bridges with Brush Strokes

“The artist is a receptacle for emotions that come from all over the place: from the sky, from the earth, from a scrap of paper, from a passing shape, from a spider’s web.” – Pablo Picasso

Artist and musician Drue Kataoka draws inspiration from the world around her, bridging ideas from around the globe through her artwork.

Introduced by    FALCONE Cristiana     Senior Adviser to the …         Italy
Panellists    KATAOKA Drue     Artist, Japan         Japan

38: Insights on Latin America

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Economic and social outlook
– Business trends and opportunities
– Regional cooperation
– Organized crime

Moderated by    HAUSMANN Ricardo     Director, Center for I…    Harvard Kennedy School     USA
Panellists    GARZA SADA Armando     Chairman and Chief Exe…    Alfa     Mexico
Panellists    IGLESIAS Enrique V.     Secretary-General, SEG…         Uruguay
Panellists    MENDOZA Lorenzo A.     Chief Executive Officer    Empresas Polar     Venezuela
Panellists    NAÍM Moisés     Senior Associate, Inte…    Carnegie Endowment for International …     USA
Panellists    VILLELA MARINO Ricardo     Chief Executive Office…    Banco Itaú Unibanco S.A.     Brazil

39: The New Reality of State Capitalism

As state-owned enterprises (SOEs) gain prominence around the world, what are the trends and norms shaping governments’ roles in the economy?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- Future of industrial policy
– Eastern versus Western perceptions
– Evolution of SOEs

Moderated by    MICKLETHWAIT John     Editor-in-Chief    The Economist     United Kingdom
Panellists    Lord LEVENE     Chairman    Lloyd’s     United Kingdom
Panellists    VAN QUICKENBORNE Vincent     Minister of Economy an…         Belgium
Panellists    STIGLITZ Joseph E.     Professor    Columbia University     USA
Panellists    AL ZAIN Talal     Chief Executive Officer    Bahrain Mumtalakat Holding Company     Bahrain
Panellists    ZHANG WEIYING     Professor of Economics    Peking University     People’s Republic of China

40: Reshaping the US Economy: The Impact Abroad

What are the global implications of dramatically reshaping the US economy?

The following dimensions will be addressed:

- New saving and consumption patterns
– Trade and investment relations with China
– Fiscal policy and the new Congress

Challenger    YU YONGDING     Senior Fellow, Institu…    Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (C…     People’s Republic of China
Moderated by    TETT Gillian R.     Managing Editor, US    The Financial Times     United Kingdom
Panellists    BANERJI Shumeet     Chief Executive Officer    Booz & Company     USA
Panellists    BERGSTEN C. Fred     Director    The Peterson Institute for Internatio…     USA
Panellists    TRUMKA Richard L.     President    American Federation of Labor and Cong…     USA
Panellists    WEINBERG Peter A.     Founding Partner    Perella Weinberg Partners Group LP     USA

41: Opening Reception

The community of Davos-Klosters welcomes all participants.

42: Opening of the Annual Meeting 2011

Welcoming Remarks by    CALMY-REY Micheline     President of the Swiss…         Switzerland
Welcoming Remarks by    SCHWAB Klaus     Founder and Executive …         Germany

43: Crystal Award Ceremony

The World Economic Forum’s Crystal Award honours artists who have used their art to improve the state of the world.

Chaired by    SCHWAB Hilde     Chairperson and Co-Fou…         Switzerland
Panellists    CARRERAS José     Opera Singer    José Carreras International Leuk…     Spain
Panellists    DE NIRO Robert     Co-Founder    Tribeca Enterprises LLC     USA
Panellists    RAHMAN A. R.     Film Composer, Musicia…    KM Musiq Limited     India

44: Opening Address

Chaired by    SCHWAB Klaus     Founder and Executive …         Germany
Opening Address by    MEDVEDEV Dmitry     President of the Russi…         Russian Federation

45: Workplace Wellness and Healthy Lives (Reception and Dinner)

Seventy per cent of premature deaths are linked to unhealthy behaviour.

Discussion Leaders    BLEWITT Richard     Chief Executive    HelpAge International     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    DRAZEN Jeffrey M.     Editor-in-Chief    The New England Journal of Medicine     USA
Discussion Leaders    MCCALLISTER Michael B.     President, Chief Execu…    Humana Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    MENDELSOHN John     President    The University of Texas M. D. Anderso…     USA
Discussion Leaders    SAMUELSSON Marcus     Chef and Owner, Red Ro…    Marcus Samuelsson Group     USA
Moderated by    AGUS David     Professor of Medicine …    University of Southern California (USC)     USA

46: The Budding Artist

What are the key enabling factors for the success of budding artists?

Discussion Leaders    AUERBACH Lera     Composer, Poet and Con…         USA
Discussion Leaders    BECKER Carol     Dean, School of the Arts    Columbia University     USA
Discussion Leaders    CHANDRASHEKAR Anjali     Global Changemaker    British Council     India
Discussion Leaders    MEHTA Tasneem Zakaria     Director    Dr Bhau Daji Lad Museum     India
Discussion Leaders    MOSTAFAVI Mohsen     Dean    Harvard University Graduate School of…     USA
Moderated by    SIMMONS Ruth J.     President    Brown University     USA

47: Confidentiality or Transparency: The WikiLeaks Dilemma

How should an organization approach its dual need for transparency and confidentiality?

Discussion Leaders    GARTON ASH Timothy     Professor of European …    University of Oxford     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    JARVIS Jeff     Blogger, Buzzmachine.c…    Graduate School of Journalism (CUNY)     USA
Discussion Leaders    ROTH Kenneth     Executive Director    Human Rights Watch     USA
Discussion Leaders    TURKSON Peter Kodwo Ap…     Cardinal and President    Secretariat of the Pontifical Council…     Vatican City State
Moderated by    SULZBERGER Arthur     Chairman and Publisher    The New York Times     USA

48: From Chief Executive Officer to Chief Design Officer

How can design thinking – which places a premium on innovation, teamwork, agile thinking and user value – drive business success?

Discussion Leaders    BROWN Tim     Chief Executive Officer    IDEO LLC     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    DILLEY Phillip     Chairman    Arup Group Ltd     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    SAWYER Keith     Associate Professor    Washington University     USA
Moderated by    SUTTON Robert I.     Professor, Management …    Stanford University     USA

49: The Perils of Economic Prediction

Economic predictions have a motley past. What can history teach us about the limits of economic prediction, and how are methods changing to bring greater accuracy?

Discussion Leaders    JOHNSON Simon     Ronald A. Kurtz, Profe…    MIT – Sloan School of Management     USA
Discussion Leaders    RAJAN Raghuram G.     Eric J. Gleacher Disti…    The University of Chicago Booth Schoo…     India
Discussion Leaders    REINHART Carmen M.     Director and Professor    Center for International Economics, U…     USA
Discussion Leaders    SHILLER Robert J.     Arthur M. Okun Profess…    Yale University     USA
Discussion Leaders    STIGLITZ Joseph E.     Professor    Columbia University     USA
Moderated by    DEFTERIOS John K.     Anchor, CNN Marketplac…    CNN International     USA

50: The Five Senses Experience

Our perception of reality is based on our five senses, creating a different reality for each of us. What should we know about our five senses?

Discussion Leaders    ANTONIOU Platon     Photographer, USA         United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    HALIFAX Roshi Joan     Founder, Abbot, Upaya …         USA
Discussion Leaders    MORI Toshiko     Robert P. Hubbard Prof…    Harvard University Graduate School of…     Japan
Discussion Leaders    OSBORNE Nigel     Professor, School of Arts    The University of Edinburgh     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    SECKEL Al     Cognitive Neuroscientist    Illusionworks LLC     USA
Moderated by    CAMPBELL Philip     Editor-in-Chief    Nature     United Kingdom

51: The History of Commerce

There are moments in time that provide exactly the right environment for business to flourish. What important historical lessons need to be relearned today to create the best business environment?

Discussion Leaders    BREMMER Ian     President    Eurasia Group     USA
Discussion Leaders    FERGUSON Niall     Professor of History    Harvard University     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    KOEHN Nancy     James E. Robison Profe…    Harvard Business School     USA
Discussion Leaders    ROGOFF Kenneth     Thomas D. Cabot Profes…    Harvard University     USA
Moderated by    MINTON BEDDOES Zanny     Economics Editor    The Economist     United Kingdom

52: The Power of the Image

How do images change our thinking and behaviour in today’s connected world?

Discussion Leaders    CONLON Peggy     President and Chief Ex…    Advertising Council     USA
Discussion Leaders    INAKAGE Masa     Dean and Professor, Gr…    Keio University     Japan
Discussion Leaders    JAPHET Garth C.     Founder and Chief Exec…    Heartlines     South Africa
Discussion Leaders    RECHBERGER Kristin     Senior Vice-President,…    National Geographic Society (NGS)     USA
Discussion Leaders    SALA Enric     Ocean Fellow    National Geographic Society (NGS)     Spain
Moderated by    DALEY Elizabeth     Dean, School of Cinema…    University of Southern California (USC)     USA

54: Science, Discovery and Controversy

Science regularly tests the boundaries of human thought and tolerance.

What controversial scientific discoveries could radically change our lives?

Challenger    ARTHUR W. Brian     Professor    Santa Fe Institute     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    ALPER Howard     Chair and President    Science, Technology and Innovation Co…     Canada
Discussion Leaders    CLIPPINGER John H.     Co-Director, The Law L…    Harvard University     USA
Discussion Leaders    COLLINS Francis S.     Director    National Institutes of Health     USA
Discussion Leaders    ESTY Dan     Professor    Yale University     USA
Discussion Leaders    KRAUSS Lawrence M.     Professor, School of E…    Arizona State University     USA
Discussion Leaders    VENTER J. Craig     Founder and President    J. Craig Venter Institute     USA
Moderated by    GOLDIN Ian     Director, Oxford Marti…    University of Oxford     South Africa

55: The Social Network Addiction

The average time spent on online social networks increased 82% in 2009.

Why are social networks so addictive and how are they changing the way we live, learn and even love?

This dinner is specially designed to provide a creative and collaborative experience.

Discussion Leaders    ARIELY Dan     Professor of Psycholog…    Duke University     USA
Discussion Leaders    BECKETT Charlie     Director, POLIS    London School of Economics and Politi…     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    DOUGHERTY Trevor Richard     Global Changemaker    British Council     USA
Discussion Leaders    HOFFMAN Reid     Executive Chairman and…    LinkedIn Corporation     USA
Discussion Leaders    MARTIN Diarmuid     Archbishop of Dublin, …         Ireland
Discussion Leaders    MAYER Marissa     Vice-President, Consum…    Google Inc.     USA
Discussion Leaders    SHIRKY Clay     Associate Professor    Tisch School of the Arts     USA
Moderated by    LE MEUR Loïc     Founder and Chief Exec…    Seesmic     France

53: Stepping into the Spotlight

Dancers, singers and athletes must channel their anxiety to perform perfectly every time they set foot on stage or the field.

How do they harness tension and nerves to create perfection every time?

Discussion Leaders    BOLLE Roberto     Principal Dancer    American Ballet Theatre     Italy
Discussion Leaders    KOSS Johann O.     President and Chief Ex…    Right To Play International     Norway
Discussion Leaders    TALGAM Itay     Conductor    Maestro Program     Israel
Discussion Leaders    WENK Christian     Board Member GÖV/ SPS    Swiss Paraplegic Foundation     Switzerland
Moderated by    ADELMAN Carol     President    Movers & Shakespeares     USA

56: Zero-sum Future

The aftermath of the Great Recession highlights a new reality – a rebalancing of both the global economy and the geopolitical landscape.

What will a more fragmented world mean for different global actors?

Discussion Leaders    HAASS Richard N.     President    Council on Foreign Relations     USA
Discussion Leaders    Lord MALLOCH-BROWN     Chairman, Global Affairs    FTI Consulting     United Kingdom
Discussion Leaders    PERTHES Volker     Director    Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (SWP)     Germany
Discussion Leaders    YAN XUETONG     Dean, Institute of Int…    Tsinghua University     People’s Republic of China
Moderated by    RACHMAN Gideon     Associate Editor, Chie…    The Financial Times     United Kingdom

___

Kirchner Museum

In Our Time

February 4 2010

The In Our Time archive is now online in full: 449 episodes so far, going back to 1998. A large part was available before. Now all of it is. That’s a fortnight’s listening if you don’t sleep.

In Our Time is the septuagenarian Melvyn Bragg’s weekly BBC Radio 4 discussion on anything cultural, historical, philosophical or scientific: he says “history of ideas”, a misdescription. It’s also a podcast. A Wikipedia list shows every programme, with contributors, on a single page.

Many contributors are from London University. The second (on Politics in the 20th Century) had Gore Vidal and Alan Clark. Nowadays it is more academic.

Not every programme hits the mark. One could parody Bragg’s manner as moderator: “We’ve got the influence of Aristotle flowing in there, I’m just trying to get the discussion driving forward.” “We’ve got the Silk Road … can we cut to the chase.” Most people, to be fair, are vague about the Silk Road. If you doubt that, watch this hilarious discussion, moderated by Nik Gowing, about a “new” silk road, at a WEF meeting in Istanbul in 2008. I was there.

We’re always in an era of “intellectual ferment”, in which “almost everything is up for grabs”.

There’s a vagueness of contour to many of the conversations. No matter what the subject, it can all sound curiously the same.

But it’s still one of the better things on one of the world’s better radio channels.

Spirit of Davos

February 2 2010

Lance Knobel defends the WEF here and here, denying that Davos is painted “in the style of George Grosz or Otto Dix”. (Kirchner, perhaps?)

This was always a naïve way of looking at it, but the “rich man’s club” epithet still gets used. I can well understand people who stay away because they would rather be doing real work: the undeclared Steve Jobs objection.

In the old days, the WEF did seem to believe that the world was run by a very small number of people who, whether or not they were rich, would be able to solve its problems if they could only be brought together (become like the coteries which controlled the world in between-the-wars thrillers). The WEF was and still is based on a conspiracy theory.

Its magazine World Link (pilot 1987, demise 2002) was launched on the premise that there were, in fact, 33,333 of them, each of whom would receive it.

The WEF produced a booklet explaining who the 33,333 were. The heads of all 142 this, the chairmen and vice-chairmen of 1,400 that. Kings, queens, popes, secretaries-general. They all added up to the magical third of a lakh.

In the remarkable last ten years, what Lance calls “the endless stream of initiatives and agendas and councils” has suggested, built, a more complicated and realistic model of the world. At Davos and elsewhere, there are communities of young global leaders, social entrepreneurs, technology pioneers, religious leaders, and others. Even in 1983, we saw a far-left British trade unionist involved.

Davos is still “highly elitist, while at the same time scurrying for a comfortable middle ground on too many issues (particularly in the kinds of cultural figures it tends to celebrate)”. Good observation on the art. At least its most star-struck phase seems to be over.

He is questioning Felix Salmon’s contention “that [the idea that] Davos was institutionally responsible, at least in part, for the economic and financial catastrophe which befell the world in 2008” was worth examining. In other words, the idea that Davos does not make people ask questions or do things differently, but makes them smug. But who are they? A very few people saw what was coming (it was staring them in the face) and their representation at Davos was the same as anywhere else.

Lance quotes James Gibney’s question in one of The Atlantic’s blogs. “Here’s what’s potentially dangerous about the Forum’s worthy-sounding ventures on climate, global education, corruption, and health etc. For starters, they reflect the needs and goals of the Forum and its members, not the world. The sponsors of the Global Redesign Initiative (GRI), for example, are Qatar, Singapore, and Switzerland. Why them? Will the emerging grand master plan pay extra attention to the priorities of a sharia-bound absolute monarchy, a one-party state that bans chewing gum, and a minaret-bashing, tax-dodger-protecting bastion of chauvinism, or did those countries just happen to have some no-strings-attached money to burn? Schemes like the GRI are spawned and shaped outside the public view. The biggest job for the staff members running them is to keep the people paying the bills happy.” Gibney’s Orwell quotation is especially to the point.

Lance: “Whatever the Global Redesign Initiative concludes, I think it is a very good bet that it will have no impact whatsoever on anyone.”

“It’s very disturbing to read reports that the Google/China dispute was a forbidden topic this year. In my day I never encountered such taboos, and we genuinely tried to foster real debate.”

Well, taboos on the Middle East were masked to some extent in those years, between Oslo and the Second Intifada. Then, it was possible to be moved by sessions in which Shimon Peres, Elie Wiesel and Yasser Arafat would encounter each other. I remember Peres, a flashy phrasemaker, saying in one of them that what was required was nothing less than “a second genesis of human experience”. Some in the room could have made more practical suggestions.

In 2006, the Forum’s second outsourced publication (Global Agenda, annual, launch 2003, demise 2006) was closed down in the middle of Davos when it published a (crude) article suggesting a trade boycott of Israel. The magazine had committed a breach of manners, but nothing anti-semitic had been written.

“What I was trying to point out in my post the other day is that there is a strong group of Davos participants who spend a lot of time questioning premises, intentions and outcomes. They may not make the headlines, particularly of the US and British press, which understandably concentrates on homegrown stars. I think the Davos crowd that Felix decries don’t need help with the paving of the road to hell – they arrive in the Graubünden utterly convinced of their superiority and rightness. There are others who are far more questioning and skeptical.”

“There’s another reason why I hesitate to wholeheartedly endorse the more dramatic criticisms of Davos and so-called Davos Man. The biggest noise, particularly in the last decade, may have been made by the American financiers and the advocates for a capitalism red in tooth and claw. But the roots of Davos are very firmly in what some call Rhineland Capitalism.”

“That more socially conscious capitalism [...] never really went away in Davos. It’s very easy to mock the Forum’s grandiose aspirations to ‘improve the state of the world’, but [its views are] sincerely held. [...] It may be overstated, misguided, even delusive, but the Forum is a holdout against the more corrosive elements of that world.”

World karma isn’t made worse by incongruous congress at Davos. It’s smug to over-praise it, naïve to over-attack it.

“Part of Klaus Schwab’s brilliance in creating and developing the Forum over the years has been sustaining the illusion of [its] power and influence. I remember some newspaper article calling Klaus the world’s greatest concierge. People within the Forum bristled. But there’s no shame in being the world’s greatest concierge. The Forum is great at bringing business and political power together, with a leavening of intellectual power [...].” But it has tried to be more than that and to drive processes.

I don’t know how well the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre works. It has a different view of the world, based on an idea not of peer-group dialogue, but of resistance by outsiders, since it knows that Davos will change nothing.

(The current Economist has a piece called “Why is economic liberalism so taboo in socially liberal Brazil?”)

A Lewis Namier-like historian or earnest thesis-writer could try to do a study of each and every participant and every initiative to determine what they contributed to what Davos discussion or WEF initiative and what the outcome was. (Impossible, and so was Namier’s attempt to do something approaching this for the eighteenth-century House of Commons.)

Grosz, The Capitalist

Bacchus Alpinus

January 31 2010

JA Symonds, in a passage called Bacchus in Graubünden in his Italian Byways, Smith, Elder & Co, 1883, tells us that much of the wine drunk in Davos was from the Italian Valtelline valley in Lombardy.

He stayed in Davos from August 1877 to April 1878, suffering from tuberculosis, and then settled there.

Davos participants drink Swiss wine, but possibly only notice it on the last day (today), when the initiated few (who know that this isn’t a boring closing buffet) take the funicular up to the Schatzalp, a former sanatorium, above the town. There, weather permitting (and, for some reason, it usually does), lunch is eaten al fresco on a snowy terrace.

The lunch is a rediscovery of the sun after a week in a valley, a rediscovery of real food, prepared in the open (much of it basic mountain food), and a rediscovery of a proper spirit of wine drinking. The view towards the Jakobshorn is a big picture at last in liberatingly concrete landscape terms.

Most people get to know Dôle. This is the Swiss red wine made, in more than one region, from two thirds Pinot Noir and a third Gamay. It tastes good in the cold. If your table gets crowded, you can plunge your bottle into a bank of snow to steady it and it will be none the worse.

To the north of Graubünden, or Grisons, the Grey Leagues, which joined Switzerland in 1803, and in which Davos is situated, are Liechtenstein and Austrian Vorarlberg. To the northeast Austrian Tirol. To the east Italian Trentino-Alto Adige. To the south Lombardy. The Valtelline is reached across the Bernina Pass.

Symonds writes about the Valtelline wines, which are made from Chiavennasca grapes, the local name of the red Piedmontese Nebbiolo.

“Some years’ residence in the Canton of the Grisons made me familiar with all sorts of Valtelline wine; with masculine but rough Inferno, generous Forzato, delicate Sassella, harsher Montagner, the raspberry flavour of Grumello, the sharp invigorating twang of Villa.” He speculates on a legend that the Etruscans had colonised these hills.

“Then my thoughts ran on to the period of modern history, when the Grisons seized the Valtelline in lieu of war-pay from the Dukes of Milan. For some three centuries they held it as a subject province. From the Rath-Haus at Davos or Chur they sent their nobles – Von Salis and Buol, Planta and Sprecher von Bernegg – across the hills as governors or podestàs to Poschiavo, Sondrio, Tirano, and Morbegno. In those old days the Valtelline wines came duly every winter over snow-deep passes to fill the cellars of the Signori Grigioni. [...] The wine-carriers – Wein-führer, as they are called – first scaled the Bernina pass, halting then as now, perhaps, at Poschiavo and Pontresina [both in Graubünden]. Afterwards, in order to reach Davos, the pass of the Scaletta rose before them – a wilderness of untracked snow-drifts. The country-folk still point to narrow, light hand-sledges, on which the casks were charged before the last pitch of the pass. Some wine came, no doubt, on pack-saddles. A meadow in front of the Dischma-Thal, where the pass ends, still bears the name of the Ross-Weid, or horse-pasture. It was here that the beasts of burden used for this wine-service, rested after their long labours. In favourable weather the whole journey from Tirano [in the Valtelline] would have occupied at least four days, with scanty halts at night.

“The Valtelline slipped from the hands of the Grisons early in this century. It is rumoured that one of the Von Salis family negotiated matters with Napoleon more for his private benefit than for the interests of the state. However this may have been, when the Graubünden became a Swiss Canton, after four centuries of sovereign independence, the whole Valtelline passed to Austria, and so eventually to Italy. According to modern and just notions of nationality, this was right. In their period of power, the Grisons masters had treated their Italian dependencies with harshness. The Valtelline is an Italian valley, connected with the rest of the peninsula by ties of race and language. It is, moreover, geographically linked to Italy by the great stream of the Adda, which takes its rise upon the Stelvio, and after passing through the Lake of Como, swells the volume of the Po.

“But, though politically severed from the Valtelline, the Engadiners and Davosers have not dropped their old habit of importing its best produce. What they formerly levied as masters, they now acquire by purchase. The Italian revenue derives a large profit from the frontier dues paid at the gate between Tirano and Poschiavo on the Bernina road. Much of the same wine enters Switzerland by another route, travelling from Sondrio to Chiavenna and across the Splügen [which is north of Como, to the west]. But until quite recently, the wine itself could scarcely be found outside the Canton. It was indeed quoted upon Lombard wine-lists. Yet no one drank it; and when I tasted it at Milan, I found it quite unrecognisable. The fact seems to be that the Graubündeners alone know how to deal with it; and, as I have hinted, the wine requires a mountain climate for its full development.

[...]

“It is customary for the Graubünden wine-merchants to buy up the whole produce of a vineyard from the peasants at the end of the vintage. They go in person or depute their agents to inspect the wine, make their bargains, and seal the cellars where the wine is stored. Then, when the snow has fallen, their own horses with sleighs and trusted servants go across the passes to bring it home. Generally they have some local man of confidence at Tirano, the starting-point for the homeward journey, who takes the casks up to that place and sees them duly charged. Merchants of old standing maintain relations with the same peasants, taking their wine regularly; so that from Lorenz Gredig at Pontresina or Andreas Gredig at Davos Dörfli, from Fanconi at Samaden, or from Giacomi at Chiavenna, special qualities of wine, the produce of certain vineyards, are to be obtained. Up to the present time this wine trade has been conducted with simplicity and honesty by both the dealers and the growers. One chief merit of Valtelline wine is that it is pure. How long so desirable a state of things will survive the slow but steady development of an export business may be questioned.”

___

Participants making their way up to the Schatzalp have absolutely no idea what it took to live in the Alps. I’d like to see a comparative study or world atlas of old trans-montane trading routes, of all arduous seasonal journeys of men, herds, flocks and goods across mountain passes. We no longer know the planet from living in terrains, but are piecing the macrocosm together in our minds in order to understand and repair it.

___

“With so much practical and theoretical interest in the produce of the Valtelline to stimulate my curiosity, I determined to visit the district at the season when the wine was leaving it. It was the winter of 1881-82, a winter of unparalleled beauty in the high Alps. Day succeeded day without a cloud. Night followed night with steady stars, gliding across clear mountain ranges and forests of dark pines unstirred by wind. I could not hope for a more prosperous season; and indeed I made such use of it, that between the months of January and March I crossed six passes of the Alps in open sleighs – the Fluela, Bernina, Splügen, Julier, Maloja, and Albula, with less difficulty and discomfort in mid-winter than the traveller may often find on them in June.

“At the end of January, my friend Christian and I left Davos long before the sun was up, and ascended for four hours through the interminable snow-drifts of the Fluela in a cold grey shadow.” He describes the journeys.

___

Alpine tourism, in which the British were pioneers – as earlier with mountaineering and later with skiing – was under way.

Vignette of Sankt Moritz.

“The next day was spent in visiting the winter colony at San Moritz, where the Kulm Hotel, tenanted by some twenty guests, presented in its vastness the appearance of a country-house. One of the prettiest spots in the world is the ice-rink, fashioned by the skill of Herr Caspar Badrutt on a high raised terrace, commanding the valley of the Inn and the ponderous bulwarks of Bernina. The silhouettes of skaters, defined against that landscape of pure white, passed to and fro beneath a cloudless sky. Ladies sat and worked or read on seats upon the ice. Not a breath of wind was astir, and warm beneficent sunlight flooded the immeasurable air.”

___

On the Bernina Pass he meets the slow Valtelline wine-train heading north.

“When we came to the galleries which defend the road from avalanches, we saw ahead of us a train of over forty sledges ascending, all charged with Valtelline wine. Our postillions drew up at the inner side of the gallery, between massive columns of the purest ice dependent from the rough-hewn roof and walls of rock. A sort of open loggia on the farther side framed vignettes of the Valtelline mountains in their hard cerulean shadows and keen sunlight. Between us and the view defiled the wine-sledges; and as each went by, the men made us drink out of their trinketti. These are oblong, hexagonal wooden kegs, holding about fourteen litres, which the carter fills with wine before he leaves the Valtelline, to cheer him on the homeward journey. You raise it in both hands, and when the bung has been removed, allow the liquor to flow stream-wise down your throat. It was a most extraordinary Bacchic procession – a pomp which, though undreamed of on the banks of the Ilissus, proclaimed the deity of Dionysos in authentic fashion. Struggling horses, grappling at the ice-bound floor with sharp-spiked shoes; huge, hoarse drivers, some clad in sheepskins from Italian valleys, some brown as bears in rough Graubünden home-spun; casks, dropping their spilth of red wine on the snow; greetings, embracings; patois of Bergamo, Romansch, and German roaring around the low-browed vaults and tingling ice pillars; pourings forth of libations of the new strong Valtelline on breasts and beards; – the whole made up a scene of stalwart jollity and manful labour such as I have nowhere else in such wild circumstances witnessed. Many Davosers were there, the men of Andreas Gredig, Valar, and so forth; and all of these, on greeting Christian, forced us to drain a Schluck from their unmanageable cruses. Then on they went, crying, creaking, struggling, straining through the corridor, which echoed deafeningly, the gleaming crystals of those hard Italian mountains in their winter raiment building a background of still beauty to the savage Bacchanalian riot of the team.

“How little the visitors who drink Valtelline wine at S. Moritz or Davos reflect by what strange ways it reaches them. A sledge can scarcely be laden with more than one cask of 300 litres on the ascent; and this cask, according to the state of the road, has many times to be shifted from wheels to runners and back again before the journey is accomplished. One carter will take charge of two horses, and consequently of two sledges and two casks, driving them both by voice and gesture rather than by rein. When they leave the Valtelline, the carters endeavour, as far as possible, to take the pass in gangs, lest bad weather or an accident upon the road should overtake them singly. At night they hardly rest three hours, and rarely think of sleeping, but spend the time in drinking and conversation. The horses are fed and littered; but for them too the night-halt is little better than a baiting-time. In fair weather the passage of the mountain is not difficult, though tiring. But woe to men and beasts alike if they encounter storms! Not a few perish in the passes; and it frequently happens that their only chance is to unyoke the horses and leave the sledges in a snow-wreath, seeking for themselves such shelter as may possibly be gained, frost-bitten, after hours of battling with impermeable drifts. The wine is frozen into one solid mass of rosy ice before it reaches Pontresina. This does not hurt the young vintage, but it is highly injurious to wine of some years’ standing. The perils of the journey are aggravated by the savage temper of the drivers. Jealousies between the natives of rival districts spring up; and there are men alive who have fought the whole way down from Fluela Hospice to Davos Platz with knives and stones, hammers and hatchets, wooden staves and splintered cart-wheels, staining the snow with blood, and bringing broken pates, bruised limbs, and senseless comrades home to their women to be tended.” That describing piracy.

“Bacchus Alpinus shepherded his train away from us to northward, and we passed forth into noonday from the gallery. It then seemed clear that both conductor and postillion were sufficiently merry. The plunge they took us down those frozen parapets, with shriek and jauchzen [rejoicing; first word of the Christmas Oratorio: Jauchzet!] and cracked whips, was more than ever dangerous. Yet we reached La Rosa safely. This is a lovely solitary spot, beside a rushing stream, among grey granite boulders grown with spruce and rhododendron: a veritable rose of Sharon blooming in the desert. The wastes of the Bernina stretch above, and round about are leaguered some of the most forbidding sharp-toothed peaks I ever saw. Onwards, across the silent snow, we glided in immitigable sunshine, through opening valleys and pine-woods, past the robber-huts of Pisciadella, until at evenfall we rested in the roadside inn at Poschiavo [still in Graubünden].”

___

Vignette of the frontier.

“One comes at length to a great red gate across the road, which separates Switzerland from Italy, and where the export dues on wine are paid. The Italian custom-house is romantically perched above the torrent. Two courteous and elegant finanzieri, mere boys, were sitting wrapped in their military cloaks and reading novels in the sun as we drove up. Though they made some pretence of examining the luggage, they excused themselves with sweet smiles and apologetic eyes – it was a disagreeable duty!”

Bernina by rail in the days when there was a frontier. Rattle of doors. “Passkontrolle!”. Night silence. Cold air. Half an hour later: “Passaporti!

___

There used to be wine-tasting at the Annual Meeting. Gideon Rachman’s entertaining FT blog tells us that it was abandoned this year in the earnest spirit of the times.

How much Valtelline wine is drunk in Davos now?

___

Tabula Regionum Europæ

Landquart-Davos

Davos 1884

Lee Kuan Yew

January 29 2010

Who was the most impressive person I met at Davos, in the years when I was there, in the small capacity of a contractor?

I won’t answer that here, but Lee Kuan Yew is a runner-up. Why would the head of an oppressive Chinese Hakka emigré family clan have that position? Well, his achievement was impressive.

“He got us where we are today,” as most Singaporeans will say to you, in zombified tones.

The answer is, because he seemed so historic. This was an authentic figure of the British empire in its dissolution. Almost the last. Though he does get shown Twitter and Facebook by his grandchildren. I do not count Robert Mugabe, whose speech at a WEF dinner in Harare in May 1997 I count as the most boring I have ever half-heard. It lasted an hour and a quarter and dwelt heavily, ominously, on agricultural reform. I don’t want to count Mahathir.

Somebody introduced me to Lee at a reception at Davos circa 1998 and it was like being introduced to Raffles. In my memory, he is wearing a white suit, like a ghost. He was standing alone, which was odd enough, at a round table laid with snacks.

This is a man thought to be obsessed with hygiene to the point of Howard Hughes-like paranoia, who (I have read) takes several baths a day. Labs will find spots of human urine and sweat on bowls of peanuts, and germs, and insect faeces. Yet Lee’s hand plunged into one as I approached.

I can’t remember our brief conversation.

Nineteenth-century Davos

January 28 2010

I have done two posts:

Davos 1884, about a visit by a famous Russian.

Landquart-Davos, about the arrival of sanatoria, hotels, a railway, electricity, the telephone and skiing.

Davos 1971-2010

January 27 2010

The WEF has produced a book about its first 40 years. Click here. The pdf will go to your pc. No need to do more.

(No author is mentioned on the title page. Klaus Schwab says in his Acknowledgments: “This book was made possible through the conscientious and dedicated work of my long-time executive assistant, Maryse Zwick. She spent two years after her official retirement sifting through thousands of documents, photographs and other materials to construct a historical roadmap of the Forum’s growth and development over the past four decades. [...] I would like to extend my thanks to Alejandro Reyes for his invaluable help in editing the manuscript and to Kamal Kimaoui for designing and producing this book.”)

At the end of the 1995 Annual Meeting we suggested to Klaus and the then Managing Director Maria Livanos Cattaui the idea of producing a book about the first 25 years in time for Davos ’96. I was publisher of the Forum’s then-magazine World Link. Lance Knobel was its editor-in-chief. Klaus’s reply was: “If you are asking Maria and me to look back, we will not be interested. The Forum must only look forward. We are not interested in talking about ourselves.”

No reason for him not to change his mind. The Forum has become public property since those homespun days.

___

I wrote a impressionistic piece about the Davoses I attended (1993 to 2006 inclusive) here.

___

Davos 1983. End of the recession of the early ’80s. Cusp of the boom. Again and again we hear governments being asked to get out of the way.

This is the Davos Symposium of the European Management Forum. Some Swiss still talk about the Davos Symposium. The EMF became the World Economic Forum in 1987. (When was Symposium adopted and dropped and when was Annual Meeting adopted?)

Is that a suitcase being examined near the start? I thought this was the age before security.

There’s a little more Swissness around than now. Perhaps that’s just the film. Klaus fusses about a door.

The Congress Centre is recognisable. There’s a CCTV display saying Welcome. Stéphane Garelli (who is nowhere mentioned in the new book) opens the meeting. Raymond Barre is its chairman. He was still chairing Meetings in my time. Nigerians are there, and the Malaysian trade minister, and Chinese.

The Chinese had attended every Davos since 1979, and the WEF had held meetings in China with the China Enterprise Management Association since ’81. No Russians. This is pre-Gorbachev.

There are workshops. A glimpse of a bookshop, probably run by Herr Stauffacher. There’s an “initiative centre”. A questioner in the audience (Helmut Maucher) is called a “challenger”.

There’s a session called “The Universe and the Origin of Life”. Science came in earlier than I had guessed, perhaps at the beginning. Religion, I suspect, is more recent. The English astronomer Fred Hoyle is still talking obscurely. Experts were less adept at addressing the world than they have become.

There is another on “The Disintegration of Society”. This was years before Thatcher’s infamous remark. We hear Petra Kelly of the German Greens and the English trade unionist and defender of Stalin Arthur Scargill.

The Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, Bernard Rogers, is there. You might think that that was a transitional post-war title, but it still exists within NATO.

Another session is called “How Can We Avoid the Debt-Crash and Whose Responsibility Is It?” Alquraishi of SAMA talks about the 1982 Third World Debt Crisis.

Barre’s remarks at the end outside the Congress Centre could be transposed into a Bremner, Bird & Fortune script. Note that thoroughbred pronunciation, and use, of the word “lucidity”, and his and Klaus’s quaint use of the term “business man”.

It all looks simpler than now, but not as different as you might have expected. Everybody is wearing glasses with huge lenses, but it isn’t like comparing 1983 with 1956 in terms of dress, though some suits look cheap, Garelli has a moustache, and Petra Kelly, with low hair and blouse clasped to the neck, looks like early Princess Diana. I asked in a recent post: “With a world continually reminded of itself in video playback, is fashion going to change more slowly? Did styles only change because we weren’t always watching ourselves and kept forgetting what we looked like?”

Here is a link to the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship, one of the more interesting corners of the WEF’s present and ever-ramifying initiatives.

Davos 2010

January 26 2010

The Annual Meeting programme (Improve the State of the World: Rethink, Redesign, Rebuild) from today:

Welcome Reception
Gathering for Newcomers
What Is the “New Normal” for Global Growth?
Rethinking Security in the 21st Century
Skills Creation: The Future of Employment
The Growing Influence of Social Networks
Rethinking Systemic Financial Risk
Germs and Globalization
The Next Global Crisis
Arts, Culture and the Digital Age
Financing Low-Carbon Growth
Trouble with Bubbles
Chronic Diseases: A Global Challenge
Rethinking Values in the Post-Crisis World
IdeasLab with INSEAD
Management Innovations from the Fringe
Opening Buffet
Life on Other Planets?
Rethinking Risk in the Boardroom
World Economic Forum Brainstorming: Redefining the Global Commons
Who Is the New Consumer?
Rethinking Energy Security
Business Solutions to Rural Poverty
Lead on the Business Stage: Lessons from Shakespeare
Design for Sustainability
Rebuilding Economics
IdeasLab with MIT
Rethinking Population Growth
Rethinking Compensation Models
IdeasLab on the Global Redesign Initiative (Values and People)
Haiti: First Responders Back from the Front Line
Opening Reception
Opening Plenary of the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2010
Opening Address
Presentation of the Crystal Awards
The Art and Science of Imagination
The “Clash of Civilizations” Revisited
The Rise of Asia
What Is Life?
Rethinking Philanthropy
Piracy and Pandemics: From Past to Present Dangers
Groundbreaking Discoveries in Science and Technology
Rethinking the Global Response to Alzheimer’s Disease
The Economics of Happiness
Reading Leaders’ Minds
Crisis and Culture
The Power of Music
Rethinking Our Values Framework
Making Cap and Trade Work
IdeasLab on the Global Redesign Initiative (Economic and Social Welfare)
Global Challenges and the World Economic Forum
Values in Your Everyday Life
Overcrowded World
IdeasLab with Social Entrepreneurs
Redesigning Consumption Patterns
Rethinking the Global Commons: Biodiversity I
Rebuilding Trust in Business Leadership
Global Energy Outlook
Rethinking the Ageing Population
Rethinking Humanitarian Assistance
Next Generation Materials
Special Message
A Conversation on the Future of Africa
Special Session on Haiti
The Information Age and Human Behaviour I
Introducing the Open Forum
Switzerland: Misfit or Model?
Rebuilding Fragile States
Redesigning the International Monetary System
Revamping Development Aid
Redirecting Marketing
Will India Meet Global Expectations?
Rebuilding Long-term Economic Growth
Strengthening the Rule of Law
Rethinking Leadership Development
Lessons from the Next Generation
The Power of the Purse
The Information Age and Human Behaviour II
Managing the Global Commons
Rebuilding Critical Infrastructure
US-China: Reshaping the Global Agenda
Redesigning with Technology Pioneers
Better Food for Better Health
Rethinking the Balance of Power in the Middle East
Enrichment through Music
IdeasLab with Yale University
Rethinking the Eurozone
IdeasLab on the Global Redesign Initiative (Global Risks)
New Corporate Governance in the Post-Crisis World
Does an Algorithm Run Your Life?
Special Message
Towards Low-Carbon Prosperity
Rethinking the Global Commons: Fisheries
State Leadership: An Opportunity for Global Action
Rethinking Africa’s Growth Strategy
IdeasLab with EPFL-ETH
The New Growth Narrative
IdeasLab on the Global Redesign Initiative (Security Challenges for the 21st Century)
Design for Change
Constructing the Ephemeral: Light in the Public Realm
Special Message
Rethinking Market Capitalism
Global Governance Redesigned
After the Financial Crisis: Consequences and Lessons Learned
Summer Davos in Tianjin Reception
2010 Investment Heatmap
Rethinking the Global Commons: Space
Restoring Faith in Economics
Right and Wrong: What Science Tells Us
What Every Person Should Know about Breast Cancer
Rethinking Business Ethics
“The Bard and the Buck”
A Future by Design?
The Year of the Flood: Speculative Fiction or the Edge of Reality?
Viruses – The Alien among Us
Latin America: Facing the Democratic Challenge
Directing Avatar – Conversation with James Cameron
Rethinking Our Values Framework
Achieving Social Goals: The Power of Behavioural Science
IdeasLab on the Global Redesign Initiative (Resources and Sustainability)
IdeasLab with Oxford University
Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Lessons on Reconnecting with Children
Meeting the Millennium Development Goals
2010: Dodging the Double Dip?
Creating Jobs and Strengthening Social Welfare
Nuclear Non-Proliferation: Getting to Zero
The Future of Journalism
Personalized Medicine
Redesigning Capital Markets
From Copenhagen to Mexico: What’s Next?
From Alexander to the Last Legion: Science and the Historical Novel
Rethinking Government Assistance
Essence through Architecture
Special Message
Rebuilding the Grid
The New Normal
Redesigning Government Exits
Emerging Multinationals and Global Innovations
Redesigning the Global Dimensions of China’s Growth
Sustainable Investment Goes Mainstream
Rethinking the Economic and Social Impact of Fitness
Rethinking E-governance
Entrepreneurial Science
Redesigning a Healthy Start
A Global Solution to Illicit Trade?
Climate Change: Financing Urgent Adaptation
From Brain Drain to Brain Circulation?
The Responsibility to Protect
The Green Collar Solution
Brazil: What Is Next?
South Africa in 2010 and Beyond
Will Soil Become More Precious than Oil?
Beautiful Science
Conversation with the King of Jordan
Reinventing Management: The Challenge of Exponential Change
Rebuilding Peace and Stability in Afghanistan
Negotiations: Overcoming the Challenges of Emotions and Culture
IdeasLab on the Global Redesign Initiative (New Institutional Approaches)
Rethinking Economic Progress
IdeasLab with Technology Pioneers: Betting on Green
Replicating the GAVI Success Story
Setting the Stage for the Girl Effect
Managing the Growth of Nuclear Power
Prepared for a Pandemic?
Global Industry Outlook: Finance, Services and Media
Saving Art through Science
Global Industry Outlook: Heavy Industries
Technology for Society
Rethinking How to Feed the World
Wanted: Capital
IdeasLab with Harvard University
Neuroscience Update: The Power of Perception
Business Leadership for the 21st Century
The US Economic Outlook
Does Religion’s Claim to Truth Lead to Violence?
Do You Trust Your Data?
Crisis and the Human Condition
What Every Person Should Know about Prostate Cancer
Cultural Leaders Dinner
Entrepreneurship: The Key to Sustainable Growth
Meet the Peacemakers
Europe’s Role on the Global Stage
Women Leaders Dinner: Identifying Your Identity
Engineering a Cooler Planet
Public Service: Attracting the Best and the Brightest?
The Nature of Intelligence
The Sustainability of a Community
Towards an East Asian Community?
The Gender Agenda: Putting Parity into Practice
Rebuilding Education for the 21st Century
IdeasLab with University of Pennsylvania and The Wharton School
IdeasLab with Young Global Leaders
Walking the Green Talk
Securing Cyberspace
Revolutionary Architecture
Global Economic Outlook
Rethinking the Global Commons: Biodiversity II
Davos Kick-off for the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa
Buffet Lunch
The Ageing Society – Still Young at 65?
Discover a Hacker’s Mindset
The Great Shift East in the Global Agenda
The Art of Musical Improvisation
Rebuilding Water Management
Redesigning Financial Regulation
IdeasLab with Global Changemakers
Weak Signals
Connecting a Carbon- and Time-constrained World
Facing a Sea Change
More than Just a Game
India’s Future Agenda
Redesign Your Cause
Global Industry Outlook: Health, Consumers, Tech and Travel
Financial Risk Management 2.0?
“Yes We Can?”
Zero Option for Corruption
Japan in Transition
Rethinking Trade and Climate Change
The US Legislative Agenda: A Global Perspective
A World without Nuclear Weapons: Utopia?
Concert
Concluding Remarks on the Open Forum 2010
Cultural Soirée
The Global Agenda 2010: The View from Davos
A Roadmap for a Sustainable Recovery
Being Responsible for the Future
Schatzalp

The anti-Davos, the World Social Forum, is taking place, if I can understand its lusitanically-opaque website, in Porto Alegre, Brazil January 25-29, Kpomassè, Benin January 28-31, Madrid January 28-31 and Prague January 29-30.

Owning water

October 30 2009

After the Junior High School (see Judith Weingarten’s comment) emoting of Yann Arthus-Bertrand’s Home, I saw another film in Kuwait last week. It was called (rather weakly) Blue Gold and subtitled The Fight to Stop the Corporate Theft of the World’s Water (US, 2008). Here the emotion was about the ownership of water.

Publicity material: “The film makes the case against commodification, proclaiming water as a precious public resource to be protected for eternity. With dwindling clean water supplies, conflicts are already developing between corporations, private investors, government interests and the human race that needs water to survive.”

Website: “In every corner of the globe, we are polluting, diverting, pumping, and wasting our limited supply of fresh water at an expediential (sic; other sics omitted) level as population and technology grows. The rampant overdevelopment of agriculture, housing and industry increase the demands for fresh water well beyond the finite supply, resulting in the desertification of the earth.

“Corporate giants force developing countries to privatize their water supply for profit. Wall Street investors target desalination and mass bulk water export schemes. Corrupt governments use water for economic and political gain. Military control of water emerges and a new geo-political map and power structure forms, setting the stage for world water wars.

“We follow numerous worldwide examples of people fighting for their basic right to water, from court cases to violent revolutions to U.N. conventions to revised constitutions to local protests at grade schools. As Maude Barlow proclaims, ‘This is our revolution, this is our war’. A line is crossed as water becomes a commodity.”

We know what the problems of water are. Rapidly falling water tables and drying rivers from over-exploitation by agriculture, industries and cities. Flooding caused by deforestation and poor land management. Climate change and loss of glaciers. Pollution. Declining ability of oceans to absorb carbon dioxide. Over-fishing. Social and political tensions that come from all this. Much of what the film says is correct.

But it is obsessed with one question: ownership. One of its bogeys is Nestlé. The film is in the spirit of the anti-Davos, the World Social Forum, and has scenes shot at one or more of its meetings. Here, from the World Economic Forum’s meeting at Davos in 2009, is a 60-minute panel on water in which Peter Brabeck-Letmathe, chairman of Nestlé, argues from a position opposite to that of the film, though there is some common ground. Basic water, he says, is a human right, meaning the few litres of water that each human being needs to drink each day and for basic hygiene. Using publicly-owned, subsidised, water to fill swimming pools and water golf courses is not a human right.

Water has to be managed. Blue Gold finds it self-evident that public ownership will produce better and fairer management than private ownership.

Seventy percent of the world’s water is used not for drinking or washing, but for agriculture. (A disproportionate amount of that goes into the supply chain for producing the rich world’s beef.) Biofuels are especially water-intensive. Most of the rest is used by industry. The issue is not ownership, but use and pricing. Precisely because water is precious, it must be priced. The failure to price it properly, says Brabeck-Letmathe, is the reason it is so abused. Ecologically-disastrous experiments such as Saudi Arabia’s now-abandoned programme of wheat farming were conducted because water was publicly-subsidised. Pricing water is, politically, extremely difficult to do and to regulate, but it must be done, by both public and private bodies. (Brabeck-Letmathe would probably concede that, with proper pricing mechanisms, publicly-owned water need not be subsidised water.)

Blue Gold is partly presented by the Council of the Canadians, the Polaris Institute, Food and Water Watch, Michigan Citizens for Water Conservation, Water Paradigm, Ryan’s Well Foundation, River Alliance of Wisconsin, Navdanya, Anti-Privatization Forum in Johannesburg and the France Libertés Fondation Danielle Mitterrand. It is produced and directed by Sam Bozzo.

I’d hoped to see a third film in culture-starved Kuwait, but missed it: Edward Burtynsky’s Manufactured Landscapes.

Landquart-Davos

February 2 2009

Back to a pre-crisis world.

Sanatoria, hotels, a railway, electricity, the telephone and skiing arrive in Davos.

How many Davos participants realise that Landquart is on the Rhine? Or practically on it?

Landquart is the nondescript village where, having ascended by train from Zurich, you change to take the narrower-gauge railway up to the highest town in Europe, Davos.

You are in eastern Switzerland. In Graubünden. The Grisons, Grischun, i Grigioni. The Grey Leagues: the name comes from the merging in 1524 of three Alpine alliances, the League of God’s House, the Grey League and the League of Ten Jurisdictions. They joined federal Switzerland as a canton in 1803.

To the north are Liechtenstein, Austrian Vorarlberg and Austrian Tirol. To the east Trentino. To the south Lombardy. Landquart is at the bottom of the Prättigau valley, through which runs the Landquart river. Near the top of the valley is Klosters. Davos is in the valley of the Landwasser river.

And further south in the canton is the Engadine valley, which follows the Inn river northeast from its headwaters at the Maloja Pass until it flows into Austria.

We met a Russian, Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, getting off the train in Landquart in November 1884 and spending the night there in a “rather miserable little room”, before making an eight-hour ascent to Davos by carriage.

When was the railway extended? Soon afterwards.

The Times, Thursday October 7 1886. More after this. Click for better resolution.

the-times-1886-10-07

The journey now takes an hour.

Phthisis means tuberculosis. Wikipedia has a page on the Rigi mountain railway.

I wondered in the Tchaikovsky post when hotels had appeared in Davos. A picture from 1870 showed a quiet-seeming village, presumably dependent on cows. Yet, before the railway, Tchaikovsky found “a row of first class hotels, and shops where you can get whatever you like”.

John Addington Symonds, suffering from tuberculosis, stayed in Davos from August 1877 to April 1878 and then settled there. He published impressions of it, Bacchus in Graubünden and Winter Nights at Davos, at the end of a book about Italy, Italian Byways (1883).

The two essays are reprinted in Our Life in the Swiss Highlands (1892), which he wrote with his daughter Margaret. Further material there, some of which had appeared in reviews, dates back to 1878, including a piece called Davos in Winter, to which he adds a postscript dated January 1892:

“I have allowed this essay to stand almost exactly as I wrote it nearly fourteen years ago, because it possesses some small historical interest, as having powerfully stimulated the formation of an English colony in Davos.“When I found, after several experiments, that I could not hope to settle down again in my own home, I built a house here. The experience I have gained during this considerable space of time has not shaken my faith in the principle of what is called the Alpine cure. But it has to a large extent modified my opinion about Davos as a health resort. The rapid development of the place, which has brought a railway up the Prättigau, and bestowed upon us the blessings of electrical illumination and the telephone, besides multiplying the resident and floating population, I dare not say how many times, has naturally increased the dwelling-houses to a very serious – I might say dangerous – extent. They stand too closely packed together, and in winter the heating apparatuses of all these houses render it absurd to speak of ‘flawless purity of air’. [The Times had used the phrase “the well-known purity of its air”. The Victorians were far more conscious of air quality than we are, because the range of quality was far wider.]

“Still, the climate, irrespective of these drawbacks, due to the swift expansion of the village, has not altered in any essential respect. It must be added, also, that the authorities of Davos show great spirit as well as an enlightened intelligence in doing all they can for its conveniences and sanitary requirements.

“Under my eyes the village has become a town. Modest hotels have grown into huge European caravanserais. Prices have risen, and the wine current in houses of entertainment has deteriorated. Social life imitates upon a small scale the manners of a city. Not a few points in my article of 1878 are almost ludicrously out of date now. The modest information I was then able to communicate regarding the method of treatment for invalids, the atmospheric condition of the valley, and so forth, have lung ago become the common property, not only of experts, but also of the general public.

“Nevertheless, I let this essay take the first place in our book, partly because in the main my old impressions are not altered, and partly because it indicates the real beginning of ‘Our Life in the Swiss Highlands.’

January 1892.

J. A .S.”

Robert Louis Stevenson also wrote an essay called Davos in Winter, for the Pall Mall Gazette of February 21 1881.

The Times correspondent says that the summer season ended in the first week of September, and he/she mentions a winter season. But the winter season was for patients, not skiers, because skiing had not even begun to get under way as an Alpine activity. It hadn’t even been adopted in the Alps as a method of getting around.Arthur Conan Doyle arrived in Davos in October 1893 with his tubercular wife and became a pioneer. He engaged two local guides, the Branger brothers, one or both of whom had first seen Norwegian skis in Paris in 1889 (I presume at the Exposition Universelle).

On March 23 1894, accompanied by the Brangers, he became the first Englishman to cross the 2,440 meter Maienfelder Furka pass above Davos and ski down to Arosa on the other side. He had recently killed off Holmes and Moriarty at the Reichenbach Falls in the Bernese Oberland. He wrote about Davos and skiing in the Strand Magazine, and no doubt elsewhere.

What about “Dr Ruedi”, who had feared the approaching railway? The correct spelling is Rüedi, three syllables. The web (why are we still surprised?) has a page on him.

He was Dr Carl Rüedi. His father, Lucius, had been Landschaftsarzt in Davos and the first doctor in history to report on the healing effect of the Alpine climate on consumptives. In May 1844, in a letter to Dr Meyer-Ahrens in Zürich, he reported that children suffering from phthisis in varying degrees had been healed after having undergone his treatment at Davos. Previously, people had been sent to warm places. He died in 1870.

Carl was born in Davos in 1848. He spent some time in America, studied in Switzerland, Germany and Austria, and in 1874 was called to Davos to fill the position his father had held, and, in addition, that of Bezirksarzt. In 1875, he was elected to the committee of the newly-established Kurverein. In 1876 he became a member of the Bündner Ärzteverein.

At the end of 1878 Rüedi resigned from his post as a country doctor and restricted his work to that of a Kurarzt who could devote his attention entirely to the treatment of visiting invalids. He gained a particular reputation among the English-speaking patients. His wife was a Scotswoman. He treated Symonds. Perhaps he treated Tchaikovsky’s friend.

He also treated Robert Louis Stevenson, who came to Davos for treatment in the winters of 1880-81 and 1881-2. In the first year RLS stayed in the Belvedere Hotel, in the second in a villa. In the dedication of his book of poetry of 1887 called Underwoods, RLS called Rüedi “the good genius of the English in his frosty mountains”.

The Belvedere, now Steigenberger Belvedere, was one of three hotels in Davos in 1880. But when was the first dedicated sanatorium opened? The first in the world was the Brehmerschen Heilanstalt für Lungenkranke in Görbersdorf (now Sokołowsko) in the Suche Mountains in Silesia, opened by Hermann Brehmer in 1863.

In 1891, Rüedi departed again for America, intending to settle in Denver, but he returned in 1896, to practice not in Davos but in Arosa, where he seems to have overcome his worry about railways, arguing for the construction of an electric railway link with Chur, the capital of Graubünden. Perhaps the cleaner technology persuaded him. The railway opened in December 1914, but Carl Rüedi died in Arosa in June 1901.

Here is the whole Times page on which the Davos article appears (will download to desktop).

map_of_canton_graubunden

Graubünden

graubunden-detail

Places mentioned

Shaping the Post-Crisis World

February 1 2009

I’ve kept the programmes for Davos 2000 and 2001 as a record of what the world (or rather Davos) was thinking at the turn of the millennium.

Here is this year’s programme (Shaping the Post-Crisis World), taken from the WEF’s website. It lists 222 sessions, which ran from January 27 to today. (I wasn’t there.)

I seem to remember that there were over 400 separate sessions before c 2002. The programme seemed quirkier and more detailed. There were more byways. The meeting was a day longer than it is now. There were (and are) plenaries to which anyone could go, and sessions, lunches and dinners (some of them very intimate) for which you had to sign up. It was first come, first served, but everyone had an equal chance.

Welcome Reception
Gathering for Newcomers
Update 2009: The New Economic Era
Update 2009: Controlling Climate Change
Update 2009: Helping Others in a Post-Crisis World
Update 2009: Dealing with Dangerous Demographics
Update 2009: The Global Talent Equation
Update 2009: Hard Lessons about Global Imbalances
Update 2009: The New Boundaries of Financial Governance
Update 2009: Crises to Prevent at All Costs
Update 2009: Managing Resources for the Long Term
CNBC Debate: No Way Back
Update 2009: North America
Update 2009: Africa
Managing Complexity: A Different Approach
Opening Buffet
2009 World Economic Brainstorming: What Happened to the Global Economy?
Update 2009: Asia
Update 2009: The Middle East
Update 2009: The Return of State Power
Update 2009: An Integrated Approach to Energy, Food and Water Security
Update 2009: Managing Assets in a Correlated World
Update 2009: Threats to Society
Update 2009: Healthcare under Stress
Update 2009: Can Corporations Turn the Corner?
Update 2009: Latin America
Update 2009: Europe
IdeasLab with Harvard Business Review
Special Session with Wen Jiabao, Premier of the People’s Republic of China
Opening Reception
Opening Plenary of the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2009
How Do Leaders Learn?
Decoding the Mystery of Social Interaction
Right Brain Crisis – Left Brain Recovery
Power to the People – Politics in the Internet Age
Business Becoming Social Entrepreneurs
When Business as Usual Is Not an Option
What Was Privacy?
Taking Success to Scale in the Middle East
The Africa You Don’t Know
The Future of Entertainment
Leadership Lessons from Shakespeare’s “Macbeth”
Global Organized Crime: An Offer that Many Cannot Refuse
Preparing for a Pandemic
36 Hours in September: What Went Wrong?
Live Long and Prosper
How Does Science Happen?
Can the World Live with the Frugal American?
Energy Outlook 2009
Update 2009: Migration and Multiple Identities
Update 2009: Digital Convergence Continues
IdeasLab with MIT
Can You Trust Your Model?
Meet the Cultural Leader: Mallika Sarabhai
The Cancer Epidemic
Crisis, Community and Leadership
Neuroeconomic Discoveries
Fragility in the Fourth Estate
Changing the Culture of Consumption
Pakistan and Its Neighbours
The Values behind Market Capitalism
A Conversation with
Introducing the Open Forum
Renewing Trust in Corporations
Dealing with Deforestation
The Mystery of the Dollar
Keeping an Entrepreneurial Edge in Tough Times
Death of the Washington Consensus?
Sustaining the Non-Profit Sector
The Ethics of Science
Fixing the Low-Skill, Low-Opportunity Trap
Iran in 2009
Riders on the Storm: Mexico Overcoming the Crisis
Global Financial Crisis: What Lessons Should Be Learned?
Rising Population: Overload or Opportunity?
New Applications in Nanotechnology
The Future of Development Assistance
The Chinese Business Agenda: Shifting Gears Amid Uncertainty
Organizing the Unorganizable – Social Computing and the Enterprise
The Great Game Revisited
IdeasLab with Oxford University
Visualizing Complexity
Discovery-driven Strategy
Managing Global Risks
The Power of Music in Healing Mind and Body
From Adoption to Diffusion: Technology and Developing Economies
Addressing the Employment Challenge
Innovation: The View from Asia
The Economic Governance of Europe
Shaping the Post-Crisis World: Views from the Next Generation
Restoring Growth through Social Business
The Future of Regenerative Medicine
The New US Administration: Can It Meet the Expectations of the World?
Special Session: The New US Agenda
The Global Compact: Creating Sustainable Markets
The Middle East: Owning Its Challenges
Middle East Plenary Simulcast
Gaza: The Case for Middle East Peace
Dalian Reception
Financing Industry in an Era of Capital Scarcity
Is There a Solution for the Middle East?
The World According to Russia
Extreme Events: Why the Surprise?
Political Art: What Now?
What Is Good Design?
Increase Your Cultural Literacy
Contemporary History Lessons
From Science Fiction to Scientific Solution
Latin America: A Global Hub for Sustainability
From GDP to Gross National Happiness
Global Security: The Next Tinderbox
Creating Wealth through Health
Shaping the Post-Crisis World: Report from the Global Agenda Councils
Scenarios for the Future of the Global Financial System
Faith in Religion
Mobile Revolutions in the Developing World
China, India and Japan: Asia’s Big Three
Design for Good
Meet the Cultural Leader: Viswanathan Anand, Chess Grand Master
Scientific Research: What Should We Expect?
IdeasLab with the Young Global Leaders
Cloud Computing: The Next Big Thing?
Educating the Next Wave of Entrepreneurs
Cool Ideas from Older Industries
Why We Need a New System of Global Cooperation
The State of Africa
Rising to the Challenge of Copenhagen
Brazil: A New Power Broker
Restoring Consumer Confidence
Growth via Travel and Tourism
A New IP-Based Strategy for Growth
Global Solutions from the Past
Urbanization: The Unstoppable Global Trend
A Risky Time for Risk Capital
Will the Environment Lose Out to the Economy?
Religion and Human Rights: A Contradiction?
The New Infrastructure Imperative
The Electric Vehicle Conundrum
How to Answer the Compensation Question
Africa: A Safer Bet than Most
NATO: Will It Survive Another 60 Years?
A Silver Lining to the Financial Cloud?
Financial Engineering Revisited
Lessons from the Financial Crisis – Time for a New Rule Book?
Global Industry Outlook 1
Growth through Innovation
IdeasLab with the Technology Pioneers
Reality Mining: Changing Behaviour
A Matter of Financial Empowerment
Four Billion Consumers, Producers and Entrepreneurs
Financial Recovery: A Long Journey Ahead?
Are Renewables the Silver Bullet?
Crisis, Collaboration and a Connected World
The Design Flaws of Governance
Special Address by
Global Industry Outlook 2
The Gulf’s New Economic Agenda
Mending the Holes in the Food Safety Net
The Next Digital Experience
Advice to the US President on Competitiveness
Human Augmentation – From Imagination to Realization
Fresh Solutions for Food Security
Latin America’s Economic Imperative
Reviving Economic Growth
Climate Justice: Basis of a New Global Solidarity?
The Sustainable Management of Space
Preventing Cancer? Change Your Habits
Leadership Lessons from Shakespeare’s “As You Like It”
Cultural Leaders Dinner
Does Economics Need a Bailout?
Capitol Hill Dinner – The 2009 Congressional Agenda
Reconciling Religion and Science in Society
The Power of Fear in Times of Uncertainty
Personal Genetics – Revolutionizing Healthcare?
Europe’s Place in the World
Recession, Depression and the Road to Recovery
Digital Asia: A World unto Itself
Nobel Nightcap
WELCOM: Connecting Leaders to Global Issues
New Frontiers of Conflict
From Green Tech to Green Jobs and Economic Growth
Cancer at the Nanoscale
Technologies Supporting Creative Leadership
Is Emissions Trading the Carbon Solution?
Leading through Structural Change
Sport: An Untapped Asset
Is the Internet at Risk?
IdeasLab with Yale University
Completing the Malaria Mission
The Girl Effect on Development
The Global Economic Outlook
A Conversation with
Special Address by
Buffet Lunch
Live and Let Die
The Bank of the Future
Leadership in Teamwork
Infrastructure for the Developing World
Global Industry Outlook 3
Making Sense of Complex Systems
IdeasLab with INSEAD
The Politics of Water
Leveraging Mass Innovation
Youth Culture: A Heatmap
Science for World Leaders
Regulating Complex Industries
Is the Right to Food an Illusion?
Rebooting the Global Economy
Unlocking the Food Chain
The Challenge of Sustainable Mobility
The Fight against Protectionism
Values, Vision and Leadership
India in Transition
Presentation of the Crystal Award
The EU – Model without Citizens?
Concert
Cultural Soirée
Concluding Remarks on the Open Forum 2009
The Global Agenda for 2009: The View from Davos
A Roadmap Out of the Economic Crisis
Believing in the Dignity of All
Schatzalp

davos

Davos 09

January 28 2009

There’s no official Davos 2009 podcast yet. YouTube. The smaller sessions are unlikely to get clips.

Of course, avoid the vacuous network commentary and most of the tweeting. And be assured: Bono won’t be there this year.

Here’s the FT page.

Here are World Social Forum clips (Belém, Pará, Brazil, January 27-February 1).

Tchaikovsky in Davos

January 26 2009

Posted a year ago.

Davos to 2006

January 25 2009

Vignettes of the Annual Meeting to 2006 posted two years ago.

abcdespañol to Yayasan Dian Desa

October 31 2008

Social entrepreneurs “use the disciplines of the corporate world to tackle daunting social problems”. Social entrepreneurship boomed in the digital age in an unprecedented way.

Stefan Zappa and the Stiftung Blind-Liecht. Jack Sim and the World Toilet Organization. Sanjit Roy and the Barefoot College. Marcela Benitez and RESPONDE. The list of those being recognised by the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship is here. (There may be one or two imposters, I suppose.) Some are at the World Economic Forum on Europe and Central Asia in Istanbul today.

The WEF “on” the Middle East

June 3 2008

The World Economic Forum’s regional meetings used to have names such as The Middle East Economic Summit. The one in Sharm El Sheikh last month, which I half-attended, used a formula which they first adopted a few years ago. It was “The World Economic Forum on the Middle East”.

Illogical name. The WEF isn’t an event, it’s a foundation. One wasn’t even supposed to call Davos “Davos” in the old days. It was the World Economic Forum’s Annual Meeting. The institution was all. The WEF isn’t pronouncing on anything either, in case anyone took the “on” that way.

There are now three middle easts.

A) Iran, Syria, their non-state allies, Hamas and Hezbollah, and their ideological allies on the street.

B) Israel and the two countries that have made peace with it, Jordan and Egypt: non-oil economies.

C) The Sunni oil economies of the Gulf.

Iraq is poised between all three. Lebanon, a half-colony of A), is torn several ways. The WEF has always pitched its regional tent in B), though all sides are welcome at Davos. I wish it would move away from the second-class resort of Sharm El Sheikh (an Israeli creation, between 1967 and ’82) to a place where large numbers of people struggle and work, but the Egyptian government built a congress centre there for them and it looks set to alternate between there and the Jordanian Dead Sea. But it could go to one of the boom towns. Or into the eye of the storm. It’s in the wrong place. Or perhaps that middle ground is where it has to be.

The Sharm meeting was sometimes impressive. The programme was focussed, but one could wish for the return of some of the Forum’s homelier touches. Bush’s speech made no impression. The Iraqi cabinet did make an impression. Many of the participants reminded one why the Forum is still the non-pareil organiser of such meetings. One or two had one thinking viscerally, with EM Forster’s Maurice, “how unfit they were to set standards or control the future”.

Davos 1884

January 31 2008

Davos in 1870 from schatzalp.ch. Perhaps the hotels came in the next decade.

As the skiers return to Davos, let’s join some Russians there in 1884.

___

“Davos

12/24 November 1884 [Russia remained on the Julian calendar until 1918; the Julian date is shown first]:

“I arrived here at last at four o’clock after a complicated journey. After Munich I stayed a night at Lindau and another at Landwart (sic) station, where the railway ends. [It no longer ends in Landquart, but we have to change trains.] From there I had an eight hour drive. [The train takes a little over one.] In Landwart I was obliged to sleep in a rather miserable little room, but it was clean. From there you usually go by coach to Davos but fearing the close proximity of all the people in the cramped space of a coach I hired a carriage and travelled alone. The higher we went up into the mountains the more severe both nature and the cold became. I suffered badly from the cold, especially in my feet.

“Driving up to Davos I imagined it to be a wilderness and feared that I would not be able to get either cigarettes or cigars. But I found that at this great height there is a row of first class hotels, and shops where you can get whatever you like. They have their own newspaper [what we know as the Davoser Zeitung; it had been established in 1881 as Wochenblatt für die Landschaft Davos], theatre (where I went yesterday with Kotek); and as to cigarettes and cigars there are plenty. All this makes a fantastic impression and I still feel as though in a dream. When I arrived at the main hotel, where Kotek lives, he was out. He expected me on the coach later and had gone to look for a room for me. [Yosif Kotek was a violinist, whom Tchaikovsky was visiting.]

“For one night I had the room of a man who had gone away. At last Kotek appeared. I was afraid that I would see only a shadow of his former self and imagine my joy when I saw him looking much fatter, with a clear complexion, and seeming perfectly well. But this is only on the surface. When he started talking I understood how bad his lungs are. Instead of a voice he has a hoarse croak and an incessant heavy cough. …

“The place is crowded, and all the hotels are full. I got a poor little room far away from the Sanatorium. In spite of 5° (Centigrade) [bracket in original] of frost all the patients are out all day. Many are dressed quite lightly and go about without coats, toboganning (Russian style), skating, and so on. The whole cure consists of breathing the pure but rarified air which is easy for the sick to breathe. About 200 people have their meals in the Sanatorium dining-room and the food is excellent. They say that healthy people feel suffocated and cannot stand the rarified air at all but up till now I feel perfectly well. But, in spite of the scenery being so grand and magnificent, it is sad and mournful here. My heart contracts from sorrow, and all I want is to leave as soon as possible. Maybe this feeling will pass after a time.

“I tactfully told Kotek that I am staying only for a few days, so if I stay a whole week, he will be very pleased. I am terribly sorry for him. He is tortured by the thought that he will not be able to go back to Berlin next year and work. However, he is not lonely, for there are plenty of nice people around, and some of them Russian. He knows everybody, though not intimately, and my staying with him for long would be too much of a sacrifice; so I am going to leave as soon as I can. It is extraordinary that a whole settlement of consumptive people live in a real Russian winter! But Kotek says that out of a hundred people at least sixty get perfectly well again.

“Good-bye for the present, Golubchik. I am glad you are pleased with your new home. …

Kotek sends his best love.

P. Tchaikovsky

To his brother Modest, from Galina von Meck, translator; Percy M Young, additional annotations; Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Letters to His Family, New York, Stein and Day, 1982. November 12-24 means the day in the Gregorian and Julian calendars.

___

Another letter, also to Modest:

“Zürich

18/30 November 1884

Modichka!

“Last night I arrived here to have a rest and I go on to Paris today. I decided to go to Paris now as I am beginning to doubt if I shall go abroad in the spring, more probably to Kamenka or another place in the country, to work and to put some money by. I left Davos with the pleasant feeling that I had done right in going to see Kotek. You would not believe how much better and happier he feels. As to his health, my first impression was misleading. He is a very sick man … I did all I could for him. I visited the doctor, secretly, and begged him if he finds Davos no good for Kotek to send him to the Riviera. I left Kotek some more money and, having done what I could both spiritually and materially, I left Davos knowing that I had done my duty as a friend. Life in Davos is typical of hotel and restaurant life. I met a multitude of people, even became quite friendly with some of Kotek’s friends. A German, very nice chap, left a most pleasant memory of himself. Was invited to a tea party by Radecky who played his works to me; then to a tea party given by a Russian lady – Gulak-Artemovsky – a very stupid and empty-headed woman whose son is a school friend of [Tchaikovsky’s nephew] Bob’s and very nice. The frost was fierce all the time and my room so cold that I even got awful chilblains on my left hand. On the way back I was driven first in a sledge and then in an ordinary coach, alone, and enjoyed the wild beauty of the mountain road.

[...]

P. Tchaikovsky

I am not sure who Radecky was. The grandson of the Count? Gulak-Artemovsky may have been the widow of Semen Hulak-Artemovsky or Semyon Gulak Artemovsky, a Ukrainian composer who had worked in Russia.

___

I have known those letters for a while, and had always wondered whether Tchaikovsky’s Manfred was inspired by Davos. It was – but he was thinking of it before he went there. The idea came from the composer Balakirev.

Another portrait of Tchaikovsky is in Tchaikovsky, A Self-Portrait, by Alexandra Orlova. I’m referring to an English edition, translated by RM Davison, with a Foreword by David Brown, OUP, 1990, of a work previously published in Russian. This is a collage of letters without exact dates. (I won’t get into editions of the letters and ultimate sources here.)

She quotes from a letter of 1882 or ’83 to Balakirev. Schumann and Byron were equally big in Russia.

“It could well be that Schumann is to blame for my incurable lack of enthusiasm for your programme. I am passionately fond of his Manfred and I have got so used to seeing Byron’s Manfred and Schumann’s Manfred as one indivisible whole [the Schumann was incidental music] that I do not know how to approach the subject so as to elicit from it any music other than that with which Schumann has already supplied it.”

Then from a letter of 1884 to his brother Anatoly:

“I have heard that Kotek really has got consumption and that he is painfully anxious to see me. I cannot settle until I see him and find out how much longer he will be with us. So I have decided to go abroad straight from here [Modest Tchaikovsky’s book makes it clear that this means St Petersburg], to Switzerland, to Davos, where Kotek is at the moment. He is all on his own and apparently hasn’t much longer to live. I simply must go.”

He then writes to Balakirev:

“I will call at a bookshop and buy a copy of Manfred. [Didn’t he already have it? He was a great reader of English literature and before he died was thinking of an opera based on a story by George Eliot.] At this very moment I am setting off for the summits of the Alps, and circumstances would be very favourable for the musical re-creation of Manfred if I were not going to see a dying man. At any event, I promise you to do my utmost to carry out your wishes.”

From Davos to Nadezhda von Meck, the patroness whom he never met, again from Orlova:

“At last I have got to Davos. Davos lies very high, in a grim, mountain landscape.”

To Balakirev:

“I am in a fairly melancholy state of mind; my surroundings are extremely gloomy and depressing, and on top of that I listen from morning to night to the consumptive coughing of my patient. I have read Manfred and have given it a great deal of thought, but I still have not started planning either the themes or the form. I have no intention of hurrying, but I give you my firm promise that, if I live to tell the tale, the symphony will be finished no later than this summer.”

To Meck again:

“My stay in Davos was not very cheerful. The surroundings themselves depressed me, as did living in the hotel, which meant that I met a lot of people … and then, finally, my patient, who never stopped coughing from morning to night – it’s all rather gloomy, of course. The day before I left I saw the doctor who is treating Kolya and we had a long talk. It is now the condition of the throat which is worse than the lung, and the greater fear is of consumption of the throat rather than of the chest.”

To Anatoly again:

“This visit to Davos has in any case been of great service to Kotek and I am glad to know this. On the way back I travelled half the journey [Davos-Landquart] on sledges and the other half [Landquart-Zurich] in an excellent stage-coach, with the carriage to myself, and enjoyed the beauty of the Swiss winter landscape.”

___

Kotek died in Davos at the end of 1884, according to a letter from Tchaikovsky to Meck quoted by Modest. Tchaikovsky, writing from Moscow, tells her that he received a telegram, presumably from Davos, on Christmas Eve. The notes to Alexander Poznansky, editor, Ralph C Burr Jr and Robert Bird, translators, Tchaikovsky through Others Eyes, Indiana University Press, 1999 say that Kotek died on December 24 1885. The year is surely wrong.

Kotek had been Tchaikovsky’s pupil, friend, perhaps lover. At least one letter from Tchaikovsky to his brother Modest, from whom he kept few secrets, suggests the last, though it describes Tchaikovsky’s feelings, not Kotek’s. Modest gives an account of the stay in Davos in his book whose first English edition (or at least the one now on the Internet Archive) was The Life and Letters of Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky, John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1906:

“On November 12th (24th) [bracket in original] he arrived at Davos. He expected to find a wilderness, in which neither cigarettes nor cigars were to be had, and the civilised aspect of the place, the luxurious hotels, the shops, and the theatre made upon him the fantastic impression of a dream. He had dreaded the meeting with Kotek, lest his friend should be changed beyond recognition by the ravages of consumption. He was agreeably surprised to find him looking comparatively well. But this was only a first impression; he soon realised that Kotek’s condition was serious. He remained a few days at Davos, rejoiced his friend’s heart by his presence, had a confidential interview with the doctor, and left for Paris on November 17th (29th) [bracket in original], after having provided liberally for the welfare of the invalid.”

Klaus Mann’s rather pathetic but readable bio-novel Pathetic Symphony does not mention the Davos stay except in retrospect.

Wikipedia, describing Byron’s play:

“Manfred is a Faustian noble living in the Bernese Alps. Internally tortured by some mysterious guilt, which has to do with the death of his most beloved, Astarte, he uses his mastery of language and spell-casting to summon seven spirits, from whom he seeks forgetfulness. (Some speculate that the relationship between him and Astarte is incestuous, and/or that Manfred had murdered Astarte, but this is not made explicit in the play, though the implicit suggestions are quite strong.) The spirits, who rule the various components of the corporeal world, are unable to control past events and cannot grant Manfred’s plea. For some time, fate prevents him from escaping his guilt through suicide. At the end, Manfred dies defying religious temptations of redemption from sin.”

What of Tchaikovsky’s Manfred?

It is a full-fledged, over-fledged, symphony. It has a druggy, hallucinatory atmosphere rare in his music and a stylish gloom which Liszt could not have matched. The trudging, lento lugubre motto must have been conceived while walking in snow.

The old Penguin Guide to records and CDs gave the recording of it under Svetlanov with the USSR Symphony Orchestra a rosette, which was awarded to performances of special quality in the days before almost anything could be called a Great Recording of the Century. Manfred is a noble, not self-indulgent, work, if Byronic and noble go together, and Svetlanov’s performance is in a spiritual class of its own. Have woodwinds ever been made to sound colder? Does any passage in Tchaikovsky express more anguish, hope, and desperate longing than 10:12 to 11:22 in the first movement? The fantastic climax at the end of that movement, a harrowing and elated statement of the motto theme, is like walking stoned through a blizzard.

The last begins in a Cossack or swashbuckling style. The peroration, with organ, surpasses the end of the first movement in grandeur.

Kotek had nearly been the dedicatee of Tchaikovsky’s Violin Concerto. In the event, Leopold Auer was, but he refused to give the first performance, describing it as unplayable. Which, of course, is the oldest story in the musical book. One could make a long list of performers, up to the present, who have said the same thing about new works, in many cases before going on to champion them. The first performance was eventually given by Adolph Brodsky.

We don’t know – or I don’t – what sanatorium Kotek was staying in. There used to be many in Davos. Their wide balconies dominated their façades, so that they looked like sponges. The doors inside were wide, so that beds could be moved easily. It was not the Schatzalp, which was opened as a sanatorium at the turn of the century and became a hotel later. The Guardian in 2004 said that there were around 30 sanatoria in the ’20s and ’30s and in 2004 only four. The Schatzalp, which is still a hotel and about to be radically redeveloped, is always described as the setting for Thomas Mann’s The Magic Mountain – but the Guardian article, if I read it correctly, says that it was something else, the Valbella Clinic, which closed in 2004.

kotek-and-tchaikovsky-c-1877.jpg

Kotek and Tchaikovsky c 1877

Davos 08

January 20 2008

Here is where you answer the Davos Question. The top-ranked of the YouTube posts will be shown at the Annual Meeting.

Here is the home page of the Meeting. Tag line: The Power of Collaborative Innovation.

My post of a year ago is there for anyone who wants a rapid impression of Davoses 1993-2006.

Felipe Fernández-Armesto’s ordeal

March 3 2007

A coincidence. I decided to do this post on Fernández-Armesto, picked up his book Civilizations, and there, before the preface, as a kind of motto, was the same passage that I quoted yesterday from Sophocles’s Antigone. It’s a modern translation, therefore very different from Gilbert Murray’s.

Continuing this blog’s series on ordeals suffered by UK historians, here via YouTube are Professor Fernández-Armesto’s elaborate accounts of what happened to him on January 4 this year in Atlanta. Wikipedia gives the other side of the story.

Anyone who wants to hear all three segments will have nearly half an hour of delicious Felipe Fernández-Armesto to listen to.

Fernández-Armesto is the king of the superdons and a Davos man. I had the pleasure of meeting him at a World Economic Forum lunch in New York in November 2001, a few weeks after 9/11. (I was staying in an apartment a few feet away from Ground Zero.) After the lunch, we and one or two others went over to the Guggenheim, where there were two exhibitions on – one of Norman Rockwell and one of Baroque and modern Brazil, called Brazil: Body and Soul.

The Rockwell – all cornflakes and Labor Day family outings in cars – was in ordinary exhibition rooms and hung on white walls. It was a large show. From it, you emerged into the main circular space, about half way up. Every part of the walls and circular walkway had been painted jet black. Towering up in the middle, nearly 50 feet high, was the huge main golden altar from the Benedictine church of São Bento, Olinda, Pernambuco, north of Recife. The most fantastic and awe-inspiring statement of a tropical Baroque which you could possibly imagine and a hair-raising contrast with the Rockwell.

Could it have been on that very day that the prolific Fernández-Armesto had the idea of a book called The Americas: The History of a Hemisphere, a synoptic history of both Latin and Anglophone Americas which appeared in 2003? He seemed distinctly lost in thought in the Guggenheim.

The book mentions Brazil’s great Baroque sculptor Aleijadinho, who was much in evidence in the exhibition:

“the mulatto cripple Aleijadinho, born in about 1732, the illegitimate son of a Portuguese carpenter and his slave. After a supposedly wild youth, which may be a pious fiction, he was divinely chastised with leprosy, muscular dystrophy, partial paralysis, and the loss of his toes. He carved masterpieces outside churches in Minas Gerais, with a chisel tied to half-paralysed fingers. His embittered, contorted style climaxed in his last sculptures, a series of twelve prophets at Congonhas do Campo. The animation, emotion, and decorative detail would have been impossible for the sculptor’s crippled hands but for the local soapstone, which is soft when freshly quarried and hardens on exposure to air.”

Felipe Fernández-Armesto, who is now teaching at Tufts, tells us on YouTube that he is applying for a Green Card. I can’t imagine that he will have any difficulty, but one of his recent books, Amerigo: The Man Who Gave His Name to America, about Vespucci, might have been intended to seal his relationship with America.

His page at the site of Queen Mary, University of London, says: “Reviewers have likened him to Gibbon, Montesquieu, Toynbee, Braudel and A.J.P. Taylor.”

His writing does have tremendous range, dash and bravura, but it is not as rich as Toynbee’s. On the other hand, most people will find him more congenial and readable. He is also a Welthistoriker. In fact, his latest book is The World: A History, which I must get. It seems to be aimed squarely at the American educational market.

The Queen Mary page quotes Raymond Carr in The Spectator: “Like the Phoenician traders, who laid out their wares on the beach in order to attract the barbarians, he lays out before us not only his images of civilizations but the problems that their emergence and decay pose. We are duly dazzled.”

The image is a good one: perhaps it comes from Felipe. Fernández-Armesto’s anecdotes and images (his stock seems inexhaustible) are displayed like that, and do dazzle us. But having read and been absorbed by Civilizations, I can remember almost nothing about it. Toynbee is also accused of dazzling us, “but”.

Toynbee was ecologically-aware in his old age, and his Mankind and Mother Earth begins and ends with majestic passages on the natural environment. But he cannot be called an “environmental historian”. On the other hand, that is exactly what Fernández-Armesto intends to be. Civilizations is described in the blurb as “a radical cultural history of mankind’s fragile relationship with nature”. Toynbee’s book does not really succeed, except in the broadest Toynbeean sense, in being what it calls itself: a “chronicle of Mankind’s encounter with Mother Earth”.

I can’t find an image of the Olinda altar which does it justice. (How did they get it into the Guggenheim building?) But here are Aleijadinho’s The Scourging of Jesus in a series on the Passion in the basilica at Congonhas in Minas Gerais, and his Jonah from the series of prophets mentioned by Fernández-Armesto.

jesus.jpg jonah.jpg

Davos Man

January 25 2007

While “Davos” – the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland – is on, a couple of thoughts.

Arnold Toynbee would have fitted in there. His passionate engagement with contemporary as well as historical issues would have made him an easy person to programme. Several of his later books are in the form of published dialogues with other figures. I can envision one of those dialogues in a closing plenary. After that, I’d want the concert, in the same hall, to be with Daniel Barenboim’s inspiring West-Eastern Divan (orchestra), which Barenboim founded with his friend Edward Said. Toynbee was an admirer of Goethe: a good lead-in. It’s made up of young Israeli, Palestinian and other Arab players, and it seems odd to me that it has not yet played at Davos.

But before that, Toynbee would have been presented with a “Crystal Award”.

Toynbee could have participated in the first four Davoses, 1971-74 inclusive. I’m not sure whether the Forum’s programming was as wide-ranging in the early days as it became later.

The WEF was originally The European Management Forum – until 1987. I’m feeling a strong seasonal Davos pull at the moment, having been at every Davos from 1993 to 2006 inclusive.

Davos gets a mixed press. (Highlights of the last few Davoses are on YouTube.) The WEF is the creation of Klaus Schwab. From 1972 to 2002 he was Professor of Business Policy at Geneva university. Lance Knobel, long-time managing editor of the WEF’s magazine of which I was publisher, called the WEF in our earlier years “gloriously personal and amateur – and I don’t see that as a pejorative”. It’s a non-profit foundation and used to be run from a modest one-storey building that looked like a primary school, in Cologny, Geneva. In 1999 it moved to slicker premises (bad good architecture, it’s been called) overlooking Lake Geneva. For detractors it’s a “rich man’s club” – which is probably the feeblest of all descriptions – and a talking shop.

In the early Davoses, participants would almost literally ski down to the Congress Centre, check in their skis and have their badges written out by hand by the formidable Maria Livanos Cattaui.

Security, in my earliest Davoses, was hardly intrusive. A few cantonal or federally-supplied security guards with their dogs (with their own mugshots), no scanners. Came the Seattle riots in 1999, and Davos 2000 and 2001 was on guard against a possible tide of demonstrators coming up the valley.

An anti-Davos, the World Social Forum, was started in 2001 in Porto Alegre in Brazil. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva surprised his voters by showing up at both Davos and the virtually simultaneous anti-Davos.

Came 9/11 – and Davos moved. The 2002 Meeting happened in New York.

Came 2003 and it returned to Davos (a contingent of Alphorn players in the Waldorf Astoria had seemed to be calling it back). Colin Powell came, to pre-announce the Iraq War. It was felt in ’03 that the usual Saturday night gala, in reality a series of parties in the Congress Centre, shouldn’t happen: times were too serious.

That was a mistake. Company after company, led by the consulting firms, held its own events in the town. They’d done that before, but it was more marginal and private. Davos began to turn into a scene for mere corporate hospitality, and a bad precedent was set. The Meeting which had begun as an off-the-record retreat started to turn into a jamboree. It became the world’s and the media’s property. There was more advertising: banners hung from buildings, projections onto mountainsides.

Security since 2003 has been another affair altogether. The easy walk from place to place became scans and queues at previously easily-accessible venues. As you waited, you started to look at your fellow-participants and wonder whether all this was indeed now what the detractors claimed. Driving became difficult, with delays and detours. By 2006 the town was looking like a place under siege, with wire, barriers and checkpoints. The intimacy had gone.

The Forum had had itchy feet by 1999. There was talk of moving the venue permanently. The 2002 move was actually a slightly odd but effective gesture of solidarity with New York, but New York, or any major city, could never be a substitute for the mountain retreat which Davos had been. But who would pay for security at Davos? What combination of the Forum, the federal government and the canton? The Meeting itself is far from universally popular. Some businesses do well, others suffer. A skiing season is interrupted. The disruption is annoying.

The Forum has responded recently by running some parallel events involving the town.

The Forum became rather starstruck. Professional celebrity-philanthropists were invited. The media attention was thereby increased. President Clinton’s arrival with most of his cabinet in 2000 (a meeting run by Lance) set a new benchmark in disruption.

The increasing cost of running Davos and other activities made the WEF ask for more and more money from its corporate “partners”, which in any commercial organisation would be called “sponsors”. So those partners demanded more and more space on the programmes. Davos isn’t supposed to be a sponsored conference. There was a tendency to which Davos fundamentalists, and a fortiori detractors, objected.

A more important change in the WEF around the time it moved into its new building was the shift from a merely enabling organisation – a facilitator for a network – to a facilitator of global initiatives with follow-through – on health, the digital divide, education, whatever. The glorious amateurs were replaced by younger and slicker teams with better degrees. Who rarely stayed long because the WEF organisational structure is far from “flat”, as the WEF tells us it is. Power resides at the top. People come and leave.

People have been saying that “Davos” is on the decline for a long time, and new reasons are constantly given. It isn’t. Nor is it the special retreat that it was when participants skied down to the Congress Centre to have their badges written out by Maria Cattaui as they were handed a cup of Glühwein.

At its best, it’s an incredible mixture of CEOs, scientists, artists (though the Forum’s taste in art and literature has always been a little unreliable), academics, religious leaders, major journalists, young entrepreneurs (22 year-old Slovenians), NGOs, social entrepreneurs. As Lance has often said, getting the best out of the week (as good as – I’m not at all reconciled to the cutting short by one day) is about not doing what you always do, and going to sessions that expose you to subjects you aren’t normally exposed to. Davos has never only been about business and it is, or was, possible to be busy for the whole week without going to a single session on a purely business issue. For a year or two from 2002 there were too many sessions on corporate governance, Sarbanes-Oxley and similar topics, and the programming began to look dull.

The one-time managing director of the WEF Claude Smadja used to say to people: “If you think you’re coming to a conference, don’t come.” Making everything work: the beautiful, unflustered thing called Swiss logistics. The Swiss understand logistics like no other people, because living in Switzerland was itself a logistical exercise. High points: the unexpected encounters, even if they were programmed by the WEF. The trudge to the Waldhuus for a session on Mars. The closing lunch in the sunshine at the Schatzalp.

Various waves have given Davos its flavour over the years. 1992 to 2001: influx from eastern Europe and Russia. 1995 to 2001: dot com boom. 2002 onwards: issues raised by 9/11. Now other matters.

In 1987 the WEF started a magazine for its members, World Link, which it ran in Geneva. In 1991 a joint venture was set up with a UK publishing group in London, and I came in. In 2002 the bi-monthly magazine was closed and relaunched as an annual, Global Agenda, for Davos 2003. I am not at Davos now because the 2006 edition published a rant by a geneticist and activist at Yale, Mazin Qumsiyeh, advocating the economic boycotting of Israel – an unbelievably crass editorial misjudgment, which got through all the filters which should have caught it. The tone was confrontational, and Davos is about everything except confrontation, and the article was not balanced by a counter-view. Lance Knobel was no longer with us. A publishing prize – official status as the magazine of the World Economic Forum – was squandered. The power of the Israeli lobby ensured that we were closed down – which is no less shocking, since this would not have happened if a similar view had been expressed in relation to an Arab state.

Coming back eliptically to the subject of this blog, it seemed a good idea the other day to set up a Google alert for Arnold Toynbee. I had to cancel it in order to reclaim my inbox.

I expected occasional, interesting references. What I got was a daily deluge of media allusions, almost all of them based on a very narrow range of misquotations or quotations that were wildly out of context and/or not understood at all. As well as telling me that Toynbee is often misquoted, this exercise revealed something else to me: the Coelho syndrome. The common factor is an unusual appeal to the partly-educated outside the West.

Toynbee seemed to be a Western dissident and to have important things to say to non-Westerners. Many of those Google alerts came from press references in Serbia, or Turkey (despite his writings on Armenia), or Latin America, or India. Other Western historians and philosophers don’t get the same welcome. Paulo Coelho, a Brazilian and therefore quasi-Westerner (and Davos man), is culturally ambiguous. You only have to travel to notice his vast global following. I hate to compare Toynbee with a figure such as Coelho, but there’s a parallel.

One more point. I am not so sure Toynbee would have been welcome at Davos (at least at a closing plenary) after all. His views on Palestine were too forthright.