Contents of the abridgements

The tables of contents of DC Somervell’s two-volume abridgement of A Study of History and of Jane Caplan’s one-volume illustrated abridgement.

See Bibliography for dates of publication. And see this post.

I publish a digest of the Caplan abridgement in Toynbee-Caplan’s own words here.

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Somervell’s two-volume abridgement of A Study of History

ABRIDGEMENT OF VOLUMES I-VI

PLAN OF THE BOOK
(The present volume is an abridgement of Parts [as distinct from volumes] I-V)

I. INTRODUCTION
II. THE GENESES OF CIVILIZATIONS
III. THE GROWTHS OF CIVILIZATIONS
IV. THE BREAKDOWNS OF CIVILIZATIONS
V. THE DISINTEGRATIONS OF CIVILIZATIONS
VI. UNIVERSAL STATES
VII. UNIVERSAL CHURCHES
VIII. HEROIC AGES
IX. CONTACTS BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS IN SPACE
X. CONTACTS BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS IN TIME
XI. LAW AND FREEDOM IN HISTORY
XII. THE PROSPECTS OF THE WESTERN CIVILIZATION
XIII. THE INSPIRATIONS OF HISTORIANS

PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR (Arnold J. Toynbee), 1946

NOTE BY THE EDITOR OF THE ABRIDGEMENT (D. C. Somervell)

I. INTRODUCTION

I. THE UNIT OF HISTORICAL STUDY
II. THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CIVILIZATIONS
III. THE COMPARABILITY OF SOCIETIES
(1) Civilizations and Primitive Societies
(2) The Misconception of “The Unity of Civilization”
(3) The Case for the Comparability of Civilizations
(4) History, Science and Fiction

II. THE GENESES OF CIVILIZATIONS

IV. THE PROBLEM AND HOW NOT TO SOLVE IT
(1) The Problem Stated
(2) Race
(3) Environment
V. CHALLENGE AND RESPONSE
(1) The Mythological Clue
(2) The Myth Applied to the Problem
VI. THE VIRTUES OF ADVERSITY
VII. THE CHALLENGE OF THE ENVIRONMENT
(1) The Stimulus of Hard Countries
(2) The Stimulus of New Ground
(3) The Stimulus of Blows
(4) The Stimulus of Pressures
(5) The Stimulus of Penalizations
VIII. THE GOLDEN MEAN
(1) Enough and Too Much
(2) Comparisons in Three Terms
(3) Two Abortive Civilizations
(4) The Impact of Islam on the Christendoms

III. THE GROWTHS OF CIVILIZATIONS

IX. THE ARRESTED CIVILIZATIONS
(1) Polynesians, Eskimos and Nomads
(2) The ‘Osmanlis
(3) The Spartans
(4) General Characteristics
Note: Sea and Steppe as Language-Conductors
X. THE NATURE OF THE GROWTHS OF CIVILIZATIONS
(1) Two False Trails
(2) Progress towards Self-determination
XI. AN ANALYSIS OF GROWTH
(1) Society and the Individual
(2) Withdrawal and Return: Individuals
(3) Withdrawal and Return: Creative Minorities
XII. DIFFERENTIATION THROUGH GROWTH

IV. THE BREAKDOWNS OF CIVILIZATIONS

XIII. THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM
XIV. DETERMINISTIC SOLUTIONS
XV. LOSS OF COMMAND OVER THE ENVIRONMENT
(1) The Physical Environment
(2) The Human Environment
(3) A Negative Verdict
XVI. FAILURE OF SELF-DETERMINATION
(1) The Mechanicalness of Mimesis
(2) New Wine in Old Bottles
(3) The Nemesis of Creativity: Idolization of an Ephemeral Self
(4) The Nemesis of Creativity: Idolization of an Ephemeral Institution
(5) The Nemesis of Creativity: Idolization of an Ephemeral Technique
(6) The Suicidalness of Militarism
(7) The Intoxication of Victory

V. THE DISINTEGRATIONS OF CIVILIZATIONS

XVII. THE NATURE OF DISINTEGRATION
(1) A General Survey
(2) Schism and Palingenesia
XVIII. SCHISM IN THE BODY SOCIAL
(1) Dominant Minorities
(2) Internal Proletariats
(3) The Internal Proletariat of the Western World
(4) External Proletariats
(5) External Proletariats of the Western World
(6) Alien and Indigenous Inspirations
XIX. SCHISM IN THE SOUL
(1) Alternative Ways of Behaviour, Feeling and Life
(2) “Abandon” and Self-Control
(3) Truancy and Martyrdom
(4) The Sense of Drift and the Sense of Sin
(5) The Sense of Promiscuity
(a) Vulgarity and Barbarism in Manners
(b) Vulgarity and Barbarism in Art
(c) Lingue Franche
(d) Syncretism in Religion
(e) Cuius Regio Eius Religio?
(6) The Sense of Unity
(7) Archaism
(8) Futurism
(9) The Self-transcendence of Futurism
(10) Detachment and Transfiguration
(11) Palingenesia
XX. THE RELATION BETWEEN DISINTEGRATING SOCIETIES AND INDIVIDUALS
(1) The Creative Genius as a Saviour
(2) The Saviour with the Sword
(3) The Saviour with the Time Machine
(4) The Philosopher Masked by a King
(5) The God Incarnate in a Man
XXI. The Rhythm of Disintegration
XXII. Standardization through Disintegration

EDITOR’S NOTE AND TABLES I-V
Editors Note: “The first four of these tables are reproduced as they stand in Mr. Toynbee’s original work. […] The fifth table is reprinted from Theology To-day, volume i, Number 3, by the kind permission of the Editor, Dr. John A. Mackay, and of Dr. Edward D. Myers, by whom this table was compiled to illustrate an article by him, in this number, on ‘Some Leading Ideas from Toynbee’s A Study of History’. Dr Myers’s table gives a bird’s-eye view of the whole field of Mr. Toynbee’s first six volumes. […]”
Table I: Universal States
Table II: Philosophies
Table III: Higher Religions
Table IV: Barbarian War-Bands
Table V: [Untitled]

ARGUMENT [The “Argument”, Somervell says in his Note, “is in effect an abridgement of an abridgement”. In just over 20 pages he summarises his abridgement of the first six volumes.]

INDEX

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ABRIDGEMENT OF VOLUMES VII-X

PREFACE, Arnold Toynbee, 1 December 1955

NOTE BY THE MAKER OF THIS ABRIDGEMENT (D. C. S.), 1955

VI. UNIVERSAL STATES

XXIII. ENDS OR MEANS?
XXIV. THE MIRAGE OF IMMORTALITY
XXV. SIC VOS NON VOBIS
(1) The Conductivity of Universal States
(2) The Psychology of Peace
(3) The Serviceability of Imperial Institutions
Communications
Garrisons and Colonies
Provinces
Capital Cities
Official Languages and Scripts
Law
Calendars; Weights and Measures; Money
Standing Armies
Civil Services
Citizenships

VII. UNIVERSAL CHURCHES

XXVI. ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTIONS OF THE RELATION OF UNIVERSAL CHURCHES TO CIVILIZATIONS
(1) Churches as Cancers
(2) Churches as Chrysalises
(3) Churches as a Higher Species of Society
(a) A New Classification
(b) The Significance of the Churches’ Past
(c) The Conflict between Heart and Head
(d) The Promise of the Churches’ Future
XXVII. THE ROLE OF CIVILIZATIONS IN THE CHURCHES’ FUTURES
(1) Civilizations as Overtures
(2) Civilizations as Regressions
XXVIII. THE CHALLENGE OF MILITANCY ON EARTH

VIII. HEROIC AGES

XXIX. THE COURSE OF THE TRAGEDY
(1) A Social Barrage
(2) The Accumulation of Pressure
(3) The Cataclysm and Its Consequences
(4) Fancy and Fact
Note: “The Monstrous Regiment of Women”

IX. CONTACTS BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS IN SPACE

XXX. AN EXPANSION OF THE FIELD OF STUDY
XXXI. A SURVEY OF ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN CONTEMPORARY CIVILIZATIONS
(1) A Plan of Operations
(2) Operations According to Plan
(a) Encounters with the Modern Western Civilization
(i) The Modern West and Russia
(ii) The Modern and West and the Main Body of Orthodox Christendom
(iii) The Modern and West and the Hindu World
(iv) The Modern and West and the Islamic World
(v) The Modern and West and the Jews
(vi) The Modern and West and the Far Eastern and Indigenous American Civilizations
(vii) Characteristics of the Encounters between the the Modern and West and Its Contemporaries
(b) Encounters with Medieval Western Christendom
(i) The Flow and Ebb of the Crusades
(ii) The Medieval West and the Syriac World
(iii) The Medieval West and Greek Orthodox Christendom
(c) Encounters between Civilizations of the First Two Generations
(i) Encounters with the Post-Alexandrine Hellenic Civilization
(ii) Encounters with the Pre-Alexandrine Hellenic Civilization
(iii) Tares and Wheat
XXXII. THE DRAMA OF ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS
(1) Concatenations of Encounters
(2) Diversities of Response
XXXIII. THE CONSEQUENCES OF ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS
(1) Aftermaths of Unsuccessful Assaults
(2) Aftermaths of Successful Assaults
(a) Effects on the Body Social
(b) Responses of the Soul
(i) Dehumanization
(ii) Zealotism and Herodianism
(iii) Evangelism
Note: “Asia” and “Europe”: Facts and Fantasies

X. CONTACTS BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS IN TIME

XXXIV. A SURVEY OF RENAISSANCES
(1) Introduction — “The Renaissance”
(2) Renaissances of Political Ideas and Institutions
(3) Renaissances of Systems of Law
(4) Renaissances of Philosophies
(5) Renaissances of Languages and Literatures
(6) Renaissances of Visual Arts
(7) Renaissances of Religious Ideals and Institutions

XI. LAW AND FREEDOM IN HISTORY

XXXV. THE PROBLEM
(1) The Meaning of “Law”
(2) The Antinomianism of Modern Western Historians
XXXVI. THE AMENABILITY OF HUMAN AFFAIRS TO “LAWS OF NATURE”
(1) A Survey of the Evidence
(a) The Private Affairs of Individuals
(b) The Industrial Affairs of a Modern Western Society
(c) The Rivalries of Parochial States: the Balance of Power
(d) The Disintegrations of Civilizations
(e) The Growths of Civilizations
(f) “There is no armour against Fate”
(2) Possible Explanations of the Currency of “Laws of Nature” in History
(3) Are Laws of Nature Current in History Inexorable or Controllable?
XXXVII. THE RECALCITRANCE OF HUMAN NATURE TO LAWS OF NATURE
XXXVIII. THE LAW OF GOD

XII. THE PROSPECTS OF THE WESTERN CIVILIZATION

XXXIX. THE NEED FOR THIS INQUIRY
XL. THE INCONCLUSIVENESS OF A PRIORI ANSWERS
XLI. THE TESTIMONY OF THE HISTORIES OF THE CIVLIZATIONS
(1) Western Experiences with Non-Western Precedents
(2) Unprecedented Western Experiences
XLII. TECHNOLOGY, WAR AND GOVERNMENT
(1) Prospects of a Third World War
(2) Towards a Future World Order
XLIII. TECHNOLOGY, CLASS CONFLICT, AND EMPLOYMENT
(1) The Nature of the Problem
(2) Mechanization and Private Enterprise
(3) Alternative Approaches to Social Harmony
(4) Possible Costs of Social Justice
(5) Living Happy Ever After?

XIII. CONCLUSION [Somervell gives no explanation for having abandoned Toynbee’s original title for the thirteenth part. This brief conclusion is hardly an abridgement of it.]

XLIV. HOW THIS BOOK CAME TO BE WRITTEN

ARGUMENT [“An abridgement of an abridgement”. The argument in the first volume of the abridgement is repeated, and the summary is extended to the end.]

INDEX

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A one-volume edition of the whole of Somervell’s abridgement was published by OUP in 1960. It includes Toynbee’s 1946 and 1955 prefaces. They are printed in that order, but preceded by a short new

PREFACE, Arnold Toynbee, 1960

Somervell’s two notes are condensed into a

NOTE BY THE EDITOR OF THE ABRIDGEMENT, D. C. Somervell, November 1959

~~~

Caplan’s one-volume illustrated abridgement of A Study of History

FOREWORD (Arnold Toynbee), June 1972

PART I THE SHAPE OF HISTORY

1 The relativity of historical thought
2 The field of historical study
3 Some definitions of terms
4 The need for a comprehensive study of human affairs
5 The transitional societies
6 The comparative study of civilizations
7 Hellenic and Chinese models
8 A Jewish model
9 A survey of civilizations

PART II THE GENESES OF CIVILIZATIONS

10 The nature of the geneses of civilizations
11 The cause of genesis: race?
12 Environment?
13 Challenge-and-response
14 The arduousness of excellence
15 The stimulus of hard countries
16 The stimulus of penalizations
17 Abortive civilizations

PART III THE GROWTHS OF CIVILIZATIONS

18 Examples of the arrest of growth
19 The criterion of growth

PART IV THE BREAKDOWNS OF CIVILIZATIONS

20 Is determinism convincing?
21 The mechanicalness of mimesis
22 The reversal of roles
23 Athens and Venice: the idolization of an ephemeral self
24 The East Roman Empire: the idolization of an ephemeral institution
25 David and Goliath: the idolization of an ephemeral technique
26 The Roman See: the intoxication of victory

PART V THE DISINTEGRATIONS OF CIVILIZATIONS

27 The nature and symptoms of social disintegration
28 Internal proletariats
29 External proletariats
30 Schism in the soul
31 The challenge of disintegration

PART VI UNIVERSAL STATES

32 Universal states: ends or means?
33 The boons of conductivity and peace
34 Communications
35 Languages and scripts
36 Capital cities
37 Civil services
38 Have universal states a future?

PART VII UNIVERSAL CHURCHES

39 Cancer or chrysalises?
40 Societies of a distinctive species?
41 Social responses to an illusion or to a reality?

PART VIII HEROIC AGES

42 The barbarian past
43 The image and the reality

PART IX CONTACTS BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS IN SPACE

44 Encounters between contemporary civilizations
45 The Modern West and Russia
46 The Modern West and Eastern Asia
47 Encounters with the post-Alexandrine Hellenic Society
48 The social consequences of encounters between contemporary civilizations
49 The psychological consequences of encounters between contemporary civilizations

PART X CONTACTS BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS IN TIME

50 Renaissances of institutions, laws, and philosophies
51 Renaissances of languages, literatures and visual arts
52 Renaissances of religions

PART XI WHY STUDY HISTORY?

53 The nature of historical thought
54 Historians in action

MAPS [No authorship stated]
South-West Asia and Egypt in the eighteenth century BC
The Egyptiac Civilization
The Cradle of the Syriac Civilization
The Mauryan Empire c. 250 BC
The Guptan Empire c. AD 450
The Achaemenian Empire and the Contending States of China c. 480 BC
The Hellenic and Sinic Worlds 171 BC
The Hellenic World c. 200 BC to AD 235
The Han, Kushan, Arsacid, and Roman Empires AD 100
The T’ang Empire, the ‘Abbasid Caliphate, the East Roman Empire, and the Carolingian Empire c. AD 815
The East Roman Empire c. AD 815
The Distribution of the Judaic Religions c. AD 732
The Distribution of the Judaic Religions c. AD 1200
Successor-States of the T’ang and ‘Abbasid Empires AD 1175
The Mongol Empire c. AD 1310
The Expansion of Russia from AD 1300
The Ottoman, Russian, and Manchu Empires AD 1795
The Japanese Civilization

CHRONOLOGIES
The Sumero-Akkadian Civilization
The Egyptiac Civilization
The Syrian “Roundabout”
The Central Asian “Roundabout”
The Indo-Pakistani Sub-continent
The Sinic Civilization
The Japanese Civilization
The Hellenic Civilization
The Orthodox Christian Civilization
The Islamic Civilization

NOTES ON THE TEXT [Footnotes]

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS [Colour plates 1-90; monochrome illustrations 1-417, of which the last eighteen are maps]

INDEX

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