Contents of the Study

The full tables of contents of A Study of History, the first time they have been seen in one place.

“… all the great baroque stage machinery of the Study …”: W Warren Wagar, Toynbee as a Prophet of World Civilization, in CT McIntire and Marvin Perry, editors, Toynbee: Reappraisals, University of Toronto Press, 1989.

See Bibliography for dates of publication. And see this post.

~~~

VOLUME I

THE PLAN OF THE BOOK

I. INTRODUCTION
II. THE GENESES OF CIVILIZATIONS
III. THE GROWTHS OF CIVILIZATIONS
IV. THE BREAKDOWNS OF CIVILIZATIONS
V. THE DISINTEGRATIONS OF CIVILIZATIONS
VI. UNIVERSAL STATES
VII. UNIVERSAL CHURCHES
VIII. HEROIC AGES
IX. CONTACTS BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS IN SPACE
X. CONTACTS BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS IN TIME
XI. LAW AND FREEDOM IN HISTORY
XII. THE PROSPECTS OF THE WESTERN CIVILIZATION
XIII. THE INSPIRATIONS OF HISTORIANS

Untitled statement: sections of the first three volumes (which does not mean the first three of the thirteen parts) were “presented orally, before publication, in two different courses of lectures which were delivered on the invitation of two foundations in the United States: the Lowell Institute at Boston, Mass., and the Norman Wait Harris Foundation at Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. [...]”.

PREFACE to the First Edition (of Volumes I, II and III), London, 16th May, 1933

PREFACE to the Second Edition, London, New Year’s Day, 1935

ΣΥΓΓΡΑΦΕΩΣ ΒΙΟΣ [a prefatory poem]

ERRATA AND ADDENDA

I. INTRODUCTION

A. THE RELATIVITY OF HISTORICAL THOUGHT

B. THE FIELD OF HISTORICAL STUDY
I. THE TEST CASE OF GREAT BRITAIN
II. THE FIELD OF WHICH GREAT BRITAIN IS A PART
III. THE EXTENSION OF OUR FIELD IN SPACE
IV. THE EXTENSION OF OUR FIELD IN TIME

Annex to B IV: E. A. Freeman’s Conception of “the Unity of History”

V. SOME PROVISIONAL CONCLUSIONS

C. THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CIVILIZATIONS
I. A SURVEY OF SOCIETIES OF THE SPECIES
(a) A Plan of Operations
(b) Operations According to Plan
The Orthodox Christian Society
The Iranic and Arabic Societies
The Syriac Society
The Indic Society
The Sinic Society
“The Fossils”
The Minoan Society
The Sumeric Society
The Hittite Society
The Babylonic Society
The Andean Society
The Yucatec, Mexic, and Mayan Societies
The Egyptiac Society

Annexes to C I (b)
I: The Schism in the Iranic World and the Incorporation of the Arabic Society into the Iranic:
The Differentiation of the Iranic and Arabic Worlds during the Post-Syriac Interregnum
The Eclipse of the Shī‘ah
The Career of Ismā‘īl Shāh Safawī down to A.D. 1511
The Career of Ismā‘īl Shāh Safawī after A.D. 1511
The Historical Consequences of Shāh Ismā‘īl’s Career
Note by Professor H. A. R. Gibb
II: Names and Nations of the Late Minoan and the Early Hellenic Age:
1. Minôs, the Mnôiâ and the Minyae
2. Minyae, Pelasgi, and Τυρσηνοι
III: The Relations of “the Indus Culture” with the Sumeric Society and with the Indic Society

II. A PROVISIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF SOCIETIES OF THE SPECIES
III. THE COMPARABILITY OF SOCIETIES OF THE SPECIES
(a) The Distinction between Civilizations and Primitive Societies
(b) The Misconception of “the Unity of Civilization”

Annex to C III (b): The Uniformity Theory and the Diffusion Theory

(c) The Philosophical Contemporaneity of All Representatives of the Species
(d) The Philosophical Equivalence of All Representatives of the Species
(e) The Comparability of the “Facts” Encountered in the Study of Civilizations

Annex to C III (e): Methods of Apprehension, Subjects of Study, and Quantities of “Data”
Additional Note on this Annex

II. THE GENESES OF CIVILIZATIONS

A. THE PROBLEM OF THE GENESES OF CIVILIZATIONS

B. THE NATURE OF THE GENESES OF CIVILIZATIONS

C. THE CAUSE OF THE GENESES OF CIVILIZATIONS
I. A POSSIBLE NEGATIVE FACTOR: VIS INERTIAE
II. POSSIBLE POSITIVE FACTORS
(a) Race and Environment
1. Race
The Race Theory and Race Feeling
The Protestant Background of Our Modern Western Race-Feeling
Race and Civilization

Annex to C II (a) 1: The Historical Antecedents of the Vein of Ruthlessness in the Modern English Method of Overseas Settlement

2. Environment

Annex to C II (a) 2: David Hume’s Conception of the Function of Environment as a Factor in the Geneses of Civilizations

(b) Challenge-and-Response
1. The Action of Challenge-and-Response
2. A Survey of Challenges and Responses in the Geneses of Civilizations
The Unknown God
The Genesis of the Egyptiac Civilization
The Genesis of the Sumeric Civilization
The Genesis of the Sinic Civilization
The Genesis of the Mayan and Andean Civilizations
The Genesis of the Minoan Civilization
Physical Challenges at the Geneses of the “Related” Civilizations
Challenges from the Human Environment

Additional Note on C II (a) 2 and C II (b) 2

~~~

VOLUME II

D. THE RANGE OF CHALLENGE-AND-RESPONSE
I. ΧΑΓΕΠᾺ ΤᾺ ΚΑΛΆ
The Return of Nature
In Central America
In Ceylon
In the North Arabian Desert
On Easter Island
In New England
On the Roman Campagna
Perfida Capua
The Temptations of Odysseus
The Flesh Pots of Egypt
The Doasyoulikes
II. THE STIMULUS OF HARD COUNTRIES
A Plan of Operations
The Yellow River and the Yangtse
Chimu and Valparaiso
Lowlands and Highlands in Guatemala
The Aegean Coasts and Their Continental Highlands
Attica and Boeotia
Chalcidicê and Boeotia
Byzantium and Calchedon
Aegina and Argos
Israelites, Phoenicians, and Philistines
Lebanon and Jabal Ansarīyah
Brandenburg and the Rhineland
Austria and Lombardy
“The Black Country” and “The Home Counties”
The Struggle for North America
III. THE STIMULUS OF NEW GROUND
The Testimony of Philosophy, Mythology and Religion
The Testimony of the “Related” Civilizations
The Special Stimulus of Migration Overseas

Annex to D III: Is “Old Ground” less fertile than “New Ground” Intrinsically or by Accident?

IV. THE STIMULUS OF BLOWS
V. THE STIMULUS OF PRESSURES
“Marches” and “Interiors”
In the Egyptian World
In the Sinic World
In the Far Eastern World
In the Hindu World
In the Sumeric and Babylonic Worlds
In the Syriac World
In the Iranic World over against Eurasia
In the Iranic World over against Orthodox Christendom
In Russian Orthodox Christendom
In Japan
In the Minoan and Hellenic Worlds
In the Western World over against the Continental European Barbarians
In the Western World over against Muscovy
In the Western World over against the Ottoman Empire
In the Western World over against the Far Western Christendom
In the Western World over against Scandinavia
In the Western World over against the Syriac World in the Iberian Peninsula
In the Andean and Central American Worlds

Annex to D V: Historic Sieges and Their After-effects

VI. THE STIMULUS OF PENALIZATIONS
The Nature of the Stimulus
Migration
Slavery
Caste
Religious Discrimination
The Phanariots
The Qāzānlīs
The Levantines
The Jews, Parsees, Nestorians, Monophysites, and Monotheletes
The Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Dönme, and Marranos
Nabobs and Sahibs
Emancipated Nonconformists
Emancipated Ra‘iyeh
Assimilationists and Zionists
Ismā‘īlīs and Imāmīs
Fossils in Fastnesses

Annex to D VI: Jews in Fastnesses

VII. THE GOLDEN MEAN
The Law of Compensations
How is a Challenge Proved Excessive?
Comparisons in Three Terms
Norway – Iceland – Greenland
Dixie – Massachusetts – Maine
Brazil – La Plata – Patagonia
The Pacific Seaboard of South America
Votyaks – Magyars – Lapps
Reactions to Changes of Climate
Scotland – Ulster – Appalachia
Reactions to the Ravages of War
Chinese Reactions to the Challenges of Emigration
Slavs – Achaeans – Teutons – Celts
The Abortive Far Western Christian Civilization
The Abortive Scandinavian Civilization
The Impact of Islam upon the Christendoms
The Abortive Far Eastern Christian Civilization
Miscarriages and Births of Civilizations in Syria

Annexes to D VII
I: Dr. Ellsworth Huntington’s Application of His Climate-and-Civilization Theory to the Histories of the Mayan and Yucatec Civilizations in Central America, and to the History of the Syriac Civilization in the Oases of the North Arabian Steppe
II: The Three-Cornered Relation between the Roman Church, England, and Ireland
III: The Extinction of the Far Western Christian Culture in Ireland
IV: The Forfeited Birthright of the Abortive Far Western Christian Civilization
V: The Resemblance between the Abortive Scandinavian Civilization and the Hellenic Civilization
VI: The Resemblance between the Abortive Scandinavian Civilization
VII: The Lost Opportunities of the Scandinavians and the ‘Osmanlis
VIII: The Forfeited Birthright of the Abortive Far Eastern Christian Civilization

~~~

VOLUME III

III. THE GROWTHS OF CIVILIZATIONS

A. THE PROBLEM OF THE GROWTHS OF CIVILIZATIONS
The Arrested Civilizations
The Esquimaux
The Nomads
The ‘Osmanlis
The Spartans
The Reversion to Animalism
Insect Societies and Human Utopias

Annexes to A
I: The “Conductivity” of Nomadism as Illustrated in the Diffusion of Languages
II: The Causes of the Occasional Eruptions of the Nomads out of Their Own Domain on the Steppes into the Adjoining Domains of the Sedentary Societies round about Them
III: The Numerical Ratio between Subjects and Masters in the Ottoman Empire and in Laconia

B. THE NATURE OF THE GROWTHS OF CIVILIZATIONS

C. THE PROCESS OF THE GROWTHS OF CIVILIZATIONS
I. THE CRITERION OF GROWTH
(a) Increasing Command over the Human Environment
(b) Increasing Command over the Physical Environment
(c) “Etherialization”
(d) The Transference of the Field of Action

Annex to C I (a): Some Make-Weights against Social Retardation in the Geographical Expansion of the Western World

II. AN ANALYSIS OF GROWTH
(a) The Relation between Growing Civilizations and Individuals
(b) The Interaction between Individuals in Growing Civilizations
The Movement of Withdrawal-and-Return
Saint Paul
A Pair of Saviours
Saint Benedict
Saint Gregory the Great
Saint Ignatius Loyola
The Buddha
David
Solon
Philopoemen
Caesar
Leo Syrus
Muhammad
Peter the Great
Lenin
Garibaldi
Hindenburg
A Pleiad of Historians
Thucydides
Xenophon
Josephus
Ollivier
Machiavelli
Polybius
Clarendon
Ibn Khaldūn
Confucius
Kant
Dante
Hamlet
Puberty
Penalized Minorities
Barbarian Rear-guards
Athens in the Second Chapter of the Growth of the Hellenic Society
Ionia in the First Chapter of the Growth of the Hellenic Society
The Achaean Confederacy in the First Chapter of the Disintegration of the Hellenic Society
Italy in the Second Chapter of the Growth of the Western Society
England in the Third Chapter of the Growth of the Western Society
What is to be Russia’s Rôle in Our Western History?
The Working of Withdrawal-and-Return in the Histories of Civilizations

Annexes to C II (b)
I: The Concept of the Second Coming in Its Psychological Setting
II: The Political Career of Muhammad
III: The Relativity of Ibn Khaldūn’s Historical Thought
IV: The Victory of the City-State Régime over the Kingdom-State Régime in the Hellenic World

III. DIFFERENTIATION THROUGH GROWTH

INDEX TO VOLUMES I-III

~~~

VOLUME IV

THE PLAN OF THE BOOK

PREFACE (to Volumes IV, V and VI), London, 31st March, 1939

IV. THE BREAKDOWNS OF CIVILIZATIONS

A. THE PROBLEM OF THE BREAKDOWNS OF CIVILIZATIONS

B. THE NATURE OF THE BREAKDOWNS OF CIVILIZATIONS

C. THE CAUSE OF THE BREAKDOWNS OF CIVILIZATIONS
I. SAEVA NECESSITAS?

Annex to C I: Which are the True Catastrophes: the Breakdowns of Civilizations or Their Births?

II. LOSS OF COMMAND OVER THE ENVIRONMENT?
(a) The Physical Environment
(b) The Human Environment
1. “The Triumph of Barbarism and Religion”?
2. The Triumph of an Alien Civilization?
3. A Negative Verdict?
III. FAILURE OF SELF-DETERMINATION
(a) The Mechanicalness of Mimesis
(b) The Intractability of Institutions
1. New Wine in Old Bottles
2. The Impact of Industrialism upon Slavery
3. The Impact of Democracy and Industrialism upon War
4. The Impact of Democracy and Industrialism upon Parochial Sovereignty
5. The Impact of Nationalism upon the Historic Political Map
6. The Impact of Industrialism upon Private Property
7. The Impact of Democracy upon Education
8. The Impact of Italian Efficiency upon Transalpine Government
9. The Impact of the Solonian Economic Revolution upon the Domestic Politics of the Hellenic City-States
10. The Impact of the Solonian Economic Revolution upon the International Politics of the Hellenic World
11. The Impact of Parochialism upon the Western Christian Church
12. The Impact of the Sense of Unity upon Religion
13. The Impact of Religiosity upon Caste
14. The Impact of Civilization upon the Division of Labour
15. The Impact of Civilization upon Mimesis
(c) The Nemesis of Christianity
1. The Problem of Περιπέτεια
2. “Resting on One’s Oars”
(α) The Idolization of an Ephemeral Self
A Definition of Idolatry
Jewry
Athens
Venice
South Carolina
Eire
The Self-Hypnotization of Narcissus
The War Cabinet
The Religion of Humanity
(β) The Idolization of an Ephemeral Institution
The Hellenic City-State
The East Roman Empire
The Pharaonic Crown
The Mother of Parliaments
Scribes, Priests, and Janissaries

Annexes to C III (c) 2 (β)
I: The Transadriatic Expedition of the Emperor Constans II and Its Antecedents in Hellenic History
II: The Abortive Resistance of the Church to the Revival of “Caesaro-papism” in Orthodox Christendom
III: Paulicians, Bogomils, Cathars

(γ) The Idolization of an Ephemeral Technique
Reptiles and Mammals
Manchester and Osaka
Goliath and David

Annex to C III (c) 2 (γ): Idolatry and Pathological Exaggeration

3. Κόρος, ˜Υβρις, ˜Ατη
(α) The Suicidalness of Militarism
The Strong Man Armed
Assyria
The Burden of Nineveh
Charlemagne
Timur Lenk
The Margrave Turned Moss-trooper

Annex to C III (c) 3 (α): Militarism and the Military Virtues

(β) The Intoxication of Victory
The Roman Republic
The Roman See

Annex to C III (c) 3 (β): Innocent III’s Response to the Challenge of Catharism

~~~

VOLUME V

V. THE DISINTEGRATIONS OF CIVILIZATIONS

A. THE PROBLEM OF THE DISINTEGRATIONS OF CIVILIZATIONS

B. THE NATURE OF THE DISINTEGRATIONS OF CIVILIZATIONS

C. THE PROCESS OF THE DISINTEGRATIONS OF CIVILIZATIONS
I. THE CRITERION OF DISINTEGRATION
(a) A Line of Approach
(b) The Movement of Schism-and-Palingenesis
(c) Schism in the Body Social
1. Dominant Minorities

Annex to C I (c) 1: Roman Policy towards Primitive Peoples

2. Internal Proletariats
A Hellenic Prototype
A Minoan Lacuna and Some Hittite Vestiges
Changes of Masters
The Japanese Internal Proletariat
The Russian and the Arabic Internal Proletariat
Internal Proletariats under Alien Universal States
The Babylonic and the Syriac Internal Proletariat
The Indic and the Sinic Internal Proletariat
The Legacy of the Sumeric Internal Proletariat
The Symptoms in the Western World

Annexes to C I (c) 2
I: The Role of Manichaeism in the Encounter between the Syrian Internal Proletariat and Hellenism
II: Marxism, Socialism and Christianity
III: The Ambiguity of Gentleness

3. External Proletariats
The Estrangement of the Proselyte
A Hellenic Instance
The Minoan External Proletariat
The Syriac External Proletariat
The Sumeric External Proletariat
The Egyptiac External Proletariat
The Sinic External Proletariat
The Indic External Proletariat
Evidence from the New World
Evidence from the Eurasian Steppe
The External Proletariat of the Main Body of Orthodox Christendom
The Minoan External Proletariat
The External Proletariat of the Main Body of the Far Eastern Society
The Iranic External Proletariat
The Russian External Proletariat
Vestiges and Rudiments in the Western World

Annexes to C I (c) 3
I: The Rhine-Danube Frontier of the Roman Empire
II: The Völkerwanderung of the Aryas and the Sanskrit Epic
III: Historical Fact and “Heroic” Tradition

4. Alien and Indigenous Inspirations
(d) Schism in the Soul
1. Alternative Ways of Behaviour, Feeling and Life
2. “Abandon” and Self-Control
3. Truancy and Martyrdom
4. The Sense of Drift

Annex to C I (d) 4: Fatalism as a Spiritual Tonic

5. The Sense of Sin
6. The Sense of Promiscuity
(α) Pammixia and Proletarianization
The Receptivity of Empire-Builders
The Vulgarization of the Dominant Minority
The Barbarization of the Dominant Minority
(β) Vulgarity and Barbarism in Art
(γ) Lingue Franche

Annexes to C I (d) 6 (γ)
I: The Napoleonic Empire as a Universal State
II: Edward Gibbon’s Choice of Linguistic Vehicle

(δ) Syncretism in Religion

Annex to C I (d) 6 (δ): Cujus Regio, Ejus Religio?

~~~

VOLUME VI

7. The Sense of Unity

Annex to C I (d) 7: The Hellenic Conception of the “Cosmopolis”

8. Archaism
(α) Archaism in Institutions and Ideas
(β) Archaism in Art
(γ) Archaism in Language and Literature
(δ) Archaism in Religion
(ε) The Self-Defeat of Archaism
9. Futurism
(α) The Relation between Futurism and Archaism
(β) The Breach with the Present
The Breach in Manners
The Breach in Institutions
The Breach in Secular Culture and in Religion

Annex to C I (d) 9 (β): New Eras

(γ) The Self-Transcendence of Futurism
10. Detachment
11. Transfiguration

Annexes to C I (d) 11
I: Aristophanes’ Fantasy of “Cloudcuckooland”
II: Saint Augustine’s Conception of the Relations between the Mundane and the Supra-Mundane Commonwealth

II. AN ANALYSIS OF DISINTEGRATION
(a) The Relation between Disintegrating Civilizations and Individuals
The Creative Genius as a Saviour
The Saviour with the Sword
The Saviour with the “Time-Machine”
The Philosopher Masked by a King
The God Incarnate as a Man

Annexes to C II (a)
I: The Hellenic Portrait of the Saviour with the Sword
II: Christus Patiens:
The Problem
Correspondences between the Story of Jesus and the Stories of Certain Hellenic Saviours with the “Time-Machine”
A Synopsis of Results
Table I: Concordance of the Literary Authorities
Table II: Analysis of Correspondences between the Gospels and the Stories of Pagan Heroes
Table III: Analysis of Correspondences between the Stories of the Spartan Archaists and those of the Other Heroes
Table IV: Common Characters
Table V: Common Scenes
Table VI: Analysis of Visual Correspondences between the Gospels and the Stories of Pagan Heroes
Table VII: Common Properties
Table VIII: Common Words
Table IX: Analysis of Verbal Correspondences between the Gospels and the Stories of Pagan Heroes
Alternative Possible Explanations
Dichtung und Wahrheit
The Legend of Hêraklês
Table X: Concordance of Correspondences between the Legend of Hêraklês and the Stories of Jesus and the Pagan Historical Heroes
The Ritual Murder of an Incarnate God
(α) “The Ride of the Beardless One”
(β) “The Reign of the Mock King”
The Life and Death of Socrates
An Egyptian Bridge between Laconia and Galilee
A Verbal Means of Conveyance
A Visual Means of Conveyance
The Economy of Truth

(b) The Interaction between Individuals in Disintegrating Civilizations
The Rhythm of Disintegration
The Rhythm in Hellenic History
The Rhythm in Sinic History
The Rhythm in Sumeric History
The Rhythm in the History of the Main Body of Orthodox Christendom
The Rhythm in Hindu History
The Rhythm in Syriac History
The Rhythm in the History of the Far Eastern Civilization in Japan
The Rhythm in the History of the Main Body of the Far Eastern Civilization
The Rhythm in Babylonic History
The Rhythm in the History of Orthodox Christendom in Russia
Vestiges in Minoan History
Symptoms in Western History

III. STANDARDIZATION THROUGH DISINTEGRATION

TABLES
Table I: Universal States
Table II: Philosophies
Table III: Higher Religions
Table IV: Barbarian War-Bands

INDEX TO VOLUMES IV-VI

~~~

VOLUME VII

THE PLAN OF THE BOOK

PREFACE (to Volumes VII, VIII, IX and X), London, 16 August 1951 and 18 February 1954

SCRIPTORIS VITA NOVA [a prefatory poem]

A KEY TO THE CROSS-REFERENCES IN THE FOOTNOTES TO VOLS. VII-X

ADDENDA

VI. UNIVERSAL STATES

A. ENDS OR MEANS?

Annex to A: Table of Types of Endings of Universal States

B. UNIVERSAL STATES AS ENDS
I. THE MIRAGE OF IMMORTALITY
A Paradoxical Misapprehension
The Aftermaths of the Roman Empire and the Arab Caliphate
The Aftermaths of the Manchu, Ottoman, and Mughal Empires
Ghosts of Defunct Universal States
The Haunting of Cairo and Istanbul by the Ghost of the Caliphate
“The Holy Roman Empire”
The Haunting of the ‘Osmanlis and the Mongols by “Ghosts of Ghosts”
“The Great Idea” of the Modern Greeks
“Moscow the Third Rome”
The Riddle of the Prestige of the Imperial Office in Japan
The Grounds of the Illusion

Annex to B I: The Role of the Byzantine Element in Muscovy’s Heritage

II. THE DOOM OF TITHONUS

C. UNIVERSAL STATES AS MEANS
I. THE PRICE OF EUTHANASIA
II. SERVICES AND BENEFICIARIES
(a) The Conductivity of Universal States
(b) The Psychology of Peace
(c) The Serviceability of Imperial Installations
1. Communications
An Analysis of Imperial Institutions
The Spider’s Web
The Grand Canal
“All Roads Lead to Rome”
The Roman Roads’ Service to the Christian Church
The Beneficiaries of Means of Communication Created by Other Universal States
An Islamic Pilgrims’ Way
The Mahāyāna’s Transcontinental Royal Road
The Challenge to Christianity in a Western Technology’s “Annihilation of Distance”
2. Garrisons and Colonies
The Mixture of Motives in the Minds of Imperial Authorities
Incaic Examples of Divers Types of Resettlement
Penal Deportations
Garrisons along the Frontiers
Garrisons in the Interior
Civilian Settlements
“The Melting Pot”
Who are the Beneficiaries?
The Triumph of Equality and Despotism in the Arab Caliphate
The Triumph of Equality and Despotism in the Roman Empire
The Utilization of Imperial Garrisons and Colonies by Higher Religions
3. Provinces
The Mixture of Motives in the Minds of Imperial Authorities
Administrative Policy in the Sinic Universal State
Administrative Policy in “the Middle Empire” and in “the New Empire” of Egypt
Administrative Policy in the Napoleonic Empire
Administrative Policy in the Achaemenian Empire
Administrative Policy in the Arab Caliphate
Financial Functions of Provinces
Judicial Functions of Provinces
Military Functions of Provinces
The Utilization of Provincial Organizations by Alien Civilizations
The Utilization of Provincial Organizations by Churches

Annex to C II (c) 3: The Administrative Geography of the Achaemenian Empire:
The Spirit and Policy of the Achaemenian Régime
The Extant Sources of Information
Administrative Geography and Political History
The Ambiguity of Homonyms
Notes on Names and Their Locations
The Achaemenian Empire’s Historical Background

4. Capital cities
“Laws” Governing the Migration of Capital Cities
Migrations of the Capital Cities of Alien Empire-builders
Migrations of the Capital Cities of Barbarian Empire-builders
Migrations of the Capital Cities of Marchmen Empire-builders
Migrations of the Capital Cities of Metropolitan Empire-builders
Who are the Beneficiaries?
The Pillage of Capital Cities by Barbarians
The Exploitation of the Prestige of Capital Cities by Empire-builders
The Use of Capital Cities as Transmitting-stations for the Radiation of Cultures
The Use of Capital Cities as Seminaries for Higher Religions

Annex to C II (c) 4: Moscow’s Changes of Fortune and Their Historical Causes

(d) The Serviceability of Imperial Currencies
1. Official Languages and Scripts
Alternative Possibilities
A Monopoly for Some Single Language or Script
A Partnership between Several Different Languages or Scripts
Empire-builders Who Have Refrained from Giving Official Currency to Their Own Mother Tongue
Who are the Beneficiaries?
2. Law
The Three Provinces of Law
Instances of Failure and Success in Attempts to Impose a Uniform Imperial Law
The Attempt to Stabilise the Law in Japan under the Tokugawa Régime
The Expedient of Codification
The Historical Background of Codification in the Spanish Empire of the Indies
The Historical Background of Codification in the Roman Empire
The Historical Background of Codification in the Napoleonic Empire
The Price of Codification
The Exceptional Service Rendered by the Code Napoléon to a Late Modern Western Society
The Normal Failure of Codification to Arrest Decay
The Decay of the Roman Law in the Roman Empire’s Teutonic Barbarian Successor-States
The Failure of the Spanish Empire of the Indies to profit by the Law of the Incaic and Aztec Empires
The Infusion of a Decadent Roman Law into the Customary Law of the Roman Empire’s Teutonic Barbarian Conquerors
The Infusion of a Decadent Roman Law into the Islamic Shari’ah
The Mosaic Law’s Debt to the Codification of the Sumeric Law by Hammurabi
3. Calendars; Weights and Measures; Money
The Concern of Governments with Standard Measures
Calendrical Cycles
Governmental Methods of Keeping Count of Time
The Inability of New Eras to Establish Themselves without Religious Sanctions
The Conservation of Pagan Calendars by Churches
The Defeat of a Duodecimal by a Decimal System of Reckoning
The Invention of Coinage
The Diffusion of the Use of Coinage
The Invention of Paper Money
The Utility of a Monetary Currency as a Medium for Governmental Propaganda
The User’s Demand for Conservatism in the Reproduction of Coin Types
(e) The Serviceability of Imperial Corporations
1. Standing Armies
The Difficulty of Creating and Maintaining a Mobile Standing Army
The Creation of a Mobile Standing Army in the Post-Diocletianic Roman Empire
Esprit de Corps
The Problem of Controlling Alien or Barbarian Troops
The Consequences of the Enlistment of Barbarians in the Post-Diocletianic Roman Army
The Roman Army’s Legacy to the Christian Church
2. Civil Services
The Difficulty of Creating a Professional Civil Service
The Taking Over of an Existing Civil Service by a Barbarian Conqueror
Experiments in Recruiting a Civil Service from an Existing Aristocracy
Experiments in Recruiting a Civil Service from Novi Homines
The Metamorphosis of an Hereditary Aristocracy into a Professional Civil Service
Experiments in Providing an Education for New Recruits
Who are the Beneficiaries?
3. Citizenships
The Initial Gulf between Subjects and Rulers
The Obliteration of the Gulf by the Statesmanship of Han Liu Pang
The Inefficacy of a Merely Juridical Enfranchisement
Imperial Citizenships and Ecclesiastical Allegiances

VII. UNIVERSAL CHURCHES

A. ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTIONS OF THE RELATION OF UNIVERSAL CHURCHES TO CIVILIZATIONS
I. CHURCHES AS CANCERS
II. CHURCHES AS CHRYSALISES
(a) The Grounds for the Chrysalis Concept
(b) The Inadequacy of the Chrysalis Concept

Annex to A I and II: Churches as Ghosts

III. CHURCHES AS A HIGHER SPECIES OF SOCIETY
(a) A Revision of Our Classification of Species of Society
A Reversal of Roles
Revelation through Tribulation
The Higher Religions’ Consensus and Dissension
The Causes of the Dissension and the Prospects of Transcending It
The Value of Diversity
The Role of the Civilizations

Annexes to A III (a)
I: Spiritual Achievement and Material Achievement: Are They Antithetical or Interdependent?
Note by Martin Wight
II: Higher Religions and Psychological Types
III: The Crux for an Historian Brought up in the Christian Tradition, by Martin Wight

(b) The Significance of the Churches’ Past
(c) The Conflict between Heart and Head
Essence and Accidents
The Origin of the Conflict
Possible Alternative Outcomes
A Demarcation of Spheres
A Common Endeavour
The Fundamental Unity of Truth

Annex to A III (c): Holy Writ

(d) The Promise of the Churches’ Future
1. Man’s Fellowship with the One True God
2. The Promise of Overcoming Discord
3. The Promise of Revealing a Spiritual Meaning in History

Annex to A III (d) 3: Immortality and Karma

4. The Promise of Inspiring an Effective Ideal of Conduct
5. The Promise of Exorcizing the Perilousness of Mimesis

B. THE ROLE OF CIVILIZATIONS IN THE LIVES OF CHURCHES
I. CIVILIZATIONS AS OVERTURES
II. CIVILIZATIONS AS REGRESSIONS

C. THE CHALLENGE OF MILITANCY ON EARTH
I. CAUSES OF REGRESSION
II. THE BOW IN THE CLOUD
(a) Auguries of Spiritual Recovery

Annex to C II (a): The Prehistoric Background to the History of the Higher Religions

(b) Possibilities of Spiritual Growth

TABLES
Table I: Universal States
Table II: Philosophies
Table III: Higher Religions
Table IV: Primitive Societies, Civilizations, Higher Religions, in Serial Order
Table V: A Tentative Concordance of the Herodotean Gazetteer and the Official Lists of Countries and Peoples of the Achaemenian Empire
Table VI: A Tentative Reconstruction of Darius’s Original Dissection of the Achaemenian Empire into Twenty Taxation Districts
Table VII: Correspondences between Higher Religions and Psychological Types
Table VIII: A Diagram to Illustrate the Relation between Higher Religions and Psychological Types

~~~

VOLUME VIII

VIII. HEROIC AGES

A. THE GENESIS OF A LIMES

B. A SOCIAL BARRAGE

C. THE ACCUMULATION OF PRESSURE
“The Wreckful Siege of Battering Days”
The Impracticability of a Policy of Non-Intercourse
The Barbarians’ Exploitation of Their Civilized Neighbours’ Weapons
The Barbarians’ Exploitation of Their Native Terrain
The Besieged Civilization’s Inability to Redress the Balance by Recourse to Organization and Technique
The Barbarians’ Military Elusiveness and Economic Parasitism
The Self-Defeat of a Policy of Setting a Thief to Catch a Thief

Annex to C: The Temporary Halt of the Western Civilization’s Frontier in North America at the Edge of the Great Plains

D. THE CATACLYSYM AND ITS CONSEQUENCES
A Reversal of Roles
The Demoralization of the Barbarian Conquerors
The Bankruptcy of a Fallen Civilized Empire’s Barbarian Successor-States
The Restraining Influences of Aidôs, Nemesis, and Hilm
The Outbreak of an Invincible Criminality
The Débâcle of an Ephemeral Barbarian Ascendancy

Annex to D: “The Monstrous Regiment of Women”

E. DICHTUNG UND WAHRHEIT
I. A PHANTASY OF HEROISM

Annex to E I: Optical Illusions in Hesiod’s Vista of History

II. A GENUINE HUMBLE SERVICE

IX. CONTACTS BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS IN SPACE (ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN CONTEMPORARIES)

A. AN EXPANSION OF THE FIELD OF STUDY
I. THE SELF-TRANSCENDENCE OF CIVILIZATIONS
II. BIRTHPLACES OF RELIGIONS IN MEETING PLACES OF CIVILIZATIONS
III. A CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF CONTACT BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS

B. A SURVEY OF ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN CONTEMPORARY CIVILIZATIONS
I. A PLAN OF OPERATIONS

Annex to B I: The Relativity of the Unit of Classification to the Object of Study

II. OPERATIONS ACCORDING TO PLAN
(a) Encounters with the Modern Western Civilization
1. The Modern West and Russia
Russia’s “Western Question”
Channels of Western Cultural Radiation into Russia
Alternative Russian Responses to the Challenge of Western Technology
The Race between the West’s Technological Advance and Russia’s Technological Westernization
The Soviet Union’s Encounter with the United States

Annexes to B II (a) 1
I: The Role of Technological Competition in the Westernization of Russia
II: The Byzantine Inspiration of the Russian Political Êthos

2. The Modern West and the Main Body of Orthodox Christendom
The Difference between the Ottoman Orthodox Christian and the Muscovite Reaction to the West
The Ottoman Orthodox Greek Orthodox Christian Phobia of the West
The Defeat of Cyril Loúkaris
The Frustration of Evyénios Voúlgharis
The Revolution in the Ottoman Orthodox Christians’ Attitude towards the West
The Revolution in the West’s Attitude towards Orthodox Christianity
Channels of Western Cultural Penetration into an Ottoman Orthodox Christendom
The Reception of a Modern Western Culture by the Ottoman Orthodox Christians and Its Political Consequences
The Ottoman Millet System of Communal Autonomy
The Fiasco of the Phanariots’ “Great Idea”
The Disruption of an Ottoman Orthodox Christendom by a Modern Western Nationalism
Russia’s Competition with the West for the Ex-Ottoman Orthodox Christians’ Allegiance

Annexes to B II (a) 2
I: The Conflict of Cultures in the Soul of Solomós
II: The Morea on the Eve of the Uprising of A.D. 1821

3. The Modern West and the Hindu World
Likenesses and Differences in the Situations of Hindu Society under British Rule and an Ottoman Orthodox Christendom
The Reception of a Modern Western Culture and Its Political Consequences
The Gulf between a Hindu and a Post-Christian Western Weltanschauung
The Aloofness of a Reformed British Civil Service in India
The Unsolved Problem of a Rising Pressure of Population

Annexes to B II (a) 3
I: The Peasant Majority of Mankind and the Agrarian Policy of the Soviet Union
II: Some Historical Clues to the Riddle of Pakistan’s Future

4. The Modern West and the Islamic World
The Encirclement of the Islamic World by the West, Russia, and Tibet
The Postponement of the Crisis
The Muslim Peoples’ Military Approach to the Western Question
The Salvaging of an Ottoman Society by Selīm III, Mehmed ‘Alī, and Mahmūd II
The Collapse in Turkey and Egypt at the Beginning of the Last Quarter of the Nineteenth Century
The Failure of the Arabs to Respond to a Continuing Challenge of Western Aggression
The Failure of a Turkish Committee of Union and Progress to Maintain the Ottoman Empire
The Success of Mustafā Kemāl Atatürk in Creating a Turkish National State
Russia’s Competition with the West for an Ascendancy over the Islamic World

Annexes to B II (a) 4
I: The Ineffectiveness of Panislamism
II: The Exploitation of Egypt by Mehmet ‘Alī

5. The Modern West and the Jews
The Peculiarities of the Western Province of a Jewish Diaporà’s Domain
The Persecution of the Peninsular Jews under a Visigothic Catholic Christian Régime
The Respite for the Peninsular Jews under Andalusian and Ottoman Muslim Régimes
The Causes of the Western Christians’ Ill-treatment of the Jews
The Plot of the Jewish Tragedy in a Western Christendom
A Mirage of Enfranchisement
The Fate of the European Jews and the Palestinian Arabs, A.D. 1933-48
Causes of the Failure of Enfranchisement
Inherent Consequences of the Captivation of the Jews by a Modern Western Gentile Nationalism
Inherent Consequences of Zionism’s Departure from a Traditional Jewish Practice of Political Quietism
The Effects of the First World War on the Destiny of Palestine
Great Britain’s Responsibility for the Catastrophe in Palestine
Germany’s and the United States’ Responsibility for the Catastrophe in Palestine
The Retrospect and the Outlook

Annex to B II (a) 5: Jewish History and the Millet Idea, by James Parkes

6. The Modern West and the Far Eastern and Indigenous American Civilizations
The Perils of Ignorance
The Fate and Future of the Indigenous American Civilizations
Chinese and Japanese Reactions to the Impact of an Early Modern West
Chinese and Japanese Reactions to the Impact of a Late Modern West
The Unsolved Problem of a Rising Pressure of Population
A Communist Russia’s Chinese Fifth Column
7. Characteristics of the Encounters between the Modern West and Its Contemporaries up to Date

Annex to B II (a) 7: The Weltanschauung of Alexander Herzen

(b) Encounters with Medieval Western Christendom
1. The Flow and Ebb of the Crusades
2. The Medieval West and the Syriac World
3. The Medieval West and Greek Orthodox Christendom
4. The Medieval West and Kievan Russia
(c) Encounters between Civilizations of the First Two Generations
1. Encounters with the Post-Alexandrine Hellenic Civilization
Likenesses and Differences between the Post-Alexandrine Hellenic and the Modern Western Eruption
The Flow and Ebb of Post-Alexandrine Hellenism
The Epiphany of Higher Religions
2. Encounters with the Pre-Alexandrine Hellenic Civilization
The Hellenic Society’s Offensive in the Mediterranean Basin
The Syriac Society’s Political Consolidation for Self-Defence
The Achaemenian Empire’s Counter-Offensive
The Aftermath on the Political Plane
The Aftermath on the Cultural Plane

Annex to B II (c) 2: Sicilian Light on Roman Origins

3. Encounters with the Syriac Civilization
4. Encounters with the Egyptiac Civilization in the Age of “the New Empire”
5. Tares and Wheat

C. THE DRAMA OF ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN CONTEMPORARIES (STRUCTURE, CHARACTERS, AND PLOT)
I. CONCATENATIONS OF ENCOUNTERS

Annex to C I: “Asia” and “Europe”: Facts and Fantasies

II. ROLES, REACTIONS, AND DENOUEMENTS
(a) Agents and Reagents
(b) Alternative Possible Reactions
(c) Alternative Possible Denouements

D. THE PROCESSES OF RADIATION AND RECEPTION
I. THE DIFFUSION OF CULTURE
II. THE DIFFRACTION OF CULTURE
Culture-Patterns and Their Instability
The Conduciveness of of Cultural Disintegration to Cultural Intercourse
Decomposition through Diffraction
Inverse Selection through Transmission

Annex to D II: The Mercenary Soldier’s Role as a Cultural Spearhead

E. THE CONSEQUENCES OF ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN CONTEMPORARIES
I. AFTERMATHS OF UNSUCCESSFUL ASSAULTS
(a) Effects on the Fortunes of the Assaulted Party
(b) Effects on the Fortunes of the Assailant
II. AFTERMATHS OF SUCCESSFUL ASSAULTS
(a) Effects on the Body Social
1. Symptoms in the Social Life of the Assailant
2. Symptoms in the Social Life of the Assaulted Party
(α) “One Man’s Meat is Another Man’s Poison”
(β) “One Thing Leads to Another”
(b) Responses of the Soul
1. Dehumanization
2. Zealotism and Herodianism
A Pair of Polar Standpoints
A Survey of Zealot and Herodian Reactions
A Meeting of Extremes
The Ineffectiveness of the Zealot-Herodian Response
3. Evangelism

Table: Barbarian War-Bands

~~~

VOLUME IX

X. CONTACTS BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS IN TIME (RENAISSANCES)

A. “THE RENAISSANCE”

B. A SURVEY OF RENAISSANCES
I. A PLAN OF OPERATIONS
II. OPERATIONS ACCORDING TO PLAN
(a) Renaissances of Political Ideas, Ideals, and Institutions

Annexes to B II (a)
I: The Conflicting Theories of Survival and Revival as Alternative Explanations of the Emergence of the Medieval Italian City-States
II: Points of Likeness and Difference between the Renaissances of the Sinic and Hellenic Universal States
III: The Role of “the Old Kingdom” in Egyptiac History
IV: The Relation, in Renaissances of Universal States, between Effectiveness of Evocation and Degree of Geographical Displacement

(b) Renaissances of Systems of Law
(c) Renaissances of Philosophies
(d) Renaissances of Languages and Literatures
A Revenante Literature’s Psychological Appeal
The Resuscitation of a Classical Literature in an Anthology, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia
The Counterfeiting of a Resuscitated Classical Literature
The Discomfiture of an Orthodox Christian Greek Vernacular Literature by a Western Vernacular Literature
The Discomfiture of an Orthodox Christian Greek Vernacular Literature by an Hellenic Ghost
The Sinic Classical Incubus on a Chinese Vernacular Literature
The Entente between the Vernacular Languages of the Hindu World and a Perennial Sanskrit

Annexes to B II (d)
I: Are the Relations of the Fine Arts and the Mathematical and Natural Sciences to the Social Milieu Diverse or Similar?
II: “Classical” Languages and Literatures
III: R. G. Collingwood’s View of the Historian’s Relation to the Objects that He Studies

(e) Renaissances of Visual Arts
(f) Renaissances of Religious Ideals and Institutions

Annex to B II (f): Was There a Renaissance of Minoan Religion in Hellenic History?

III. THE ROLE OF PILGRIMAGES IN RENAISSANCES

C. THE DRAMA OF RENAISSANCES
I. THE STAGE OF THE DRAMA OF RENAISSANCES
II. THE OCCASION OF THE DRAMA OF RENAISSANCES
III. THE PLOT OF THE DRAMA OF RENAISSANCES

D. THE PROCESS OF EVOCATION
I. THE INVERSION OF AN ORIGINAL HISTORICAL ORDER
II. THE ECLECTICISM OF WAHLVERWANDTSCHAFTEN

E. THE CONSEQUENCES OF NECROMANCY
I. THE TRANSFUSION OF PSYCHIC ENERGY
II. THE CHALLENGE FROM THE REVENANT AND A PAIR OF ALTERNATIVE POSSIBLE RESPONSES
(a) The Antaean Rebound and the Atlantean Stance
(b) A Survey of Antaean and Atlantean Reactions
III. THE BLESSEDNESS OF IMMUNITY, MERCIFULNESS OF MORTALITY, AND UNTOWARDNESS OF PRECOCITY
IV. THE STERILITY OF THE BLACK ART

XI. LAW AND FREEDOM IN HISTORY

A. THE PROBLEM
I. THE STATE OF THE QUESTION
II. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
III. THE ANTINOMIANISM OF LATE MODERN WESTERN HISTORIANS
(a) The Repudiation of a Belief in a “Law of God” by Late Modern Western Minds
(b) The Contest between Science and Antinomianism for the Possession of an Intellectually Derelict Realm of Human Affairs
(c) The Unconscious Credulity of Professed Agnostics
(d) The Grounds of the Late Modern Western Historians’ Agnosticism
IV. THE OPENNESS OF THE QUESTION

B. THE AMENABILITY OF HUMAN AFFAIRS TO “LAWS OF NATURE”
I. A SURVEY OF INSTANCES
(a) “Laws of Nature” in the Ordinary Affairs of Private People in an Industrial Western Society
(b) “Laws of Nature” in the Economic Affairs of an Industrial Western Society
(c) “Laws of Nature” in the Histories of Civilizations
1. Struggles for Existence between Parochial States
The War-and-Peace Cycle in Modern and Post-Modern Western History
Table: Successive Occurrences of the War-and-Peace Cycle in Modern and post-Modern Western History
The War-and-Peace Cycle in Post-Alexandrine Hellenic History
Table: Successive Occurrences of the War-and-Peace Cycle in post-Alexandrine Hellenic History
The War-and-Peace Cycle in Post-Confucian Sinic History
Table: Successive Occurrences of the War-and-Peace Cycle in Post-Confucian Sinic History
A Synoptic View of the Currency of the War-and-Peace Cycle in the Histories of the Western, Hellenic, and Sinic Civilizations
Table: A Synoptic Table of the Dates marking Turning-points from Bouts of War to Spells of Peace and vice versa in the Modern and post-Modern Western, the post-Alexandrine Hellenic, and the Post-Confucian Sinic Series of War-and-Peace Cycles
2. The Disintegrations and Growths of Societies
“Laws of Nature” in the Disintegrations of Civilizations
“Laws of Nature” in the Growths of Civilizations
(d) “There is No Armour against Fate”
II. POSSIBLE EXPLANATIONS OF THE CURRENCY OF “LAWS OF NATURE” IN HISTORY
The Emancipation of Man’s Work from the Day-and-Night Cycle and from the Annual Cycle of the Seasons by Civilization
The Emancipation of a Psychological Business Cycle from a Physical Crop Cycle by the Industrial Revolution
The Human Spirit’s Educational Use of a Physical Generation Cycle as a Psychological Regulator of Social Change
The Subjection of Broken-down Civilizations to Laws of Sub-conscious Human Nature
III. ARE “LAWS OF NATURE” CURRENT IN HISTORY INEXORABLE OR CONTROLLABLE?

C. THE RECALCITRANCE OF HUMAN AFFAIRS TO “LAWS OF NATURE”
I. A SURVEY OF INSTANCES
(a) The Variability of the Rate of Cultural Change
1. The Hypothesis of Invariability and the Evidence against It
2. Instances of Acceleration
3. Instances of Retardation
4. Instances of an Alternating Rate of Change
(b) The Diversity of Corresponding Episodes in the Histories of Different Civilizations
1. A Diversity in the Duration of the Growth-Phases of Civilizations
2. A Diversity in the Relations of Religion to the Rises and Falls of Civilizations in Different Generations

II. POSSIBLE EXPLANATIONS OF THE INOPERATIVENESS OF “LAWS OF NATURE” IN SOME PHASES OF HUMAN AFFAIRS

D. THE FREEDOM OF HUMAN SOULS THAT IS THE LAW OF GOD

XII. THE PROSPECTS OF THE WESTERN CIVILIZATION

A. THE NEED FOR THIS ENQUIRY

B. THE INCONCLUSIVENESS OF A PRIORI ANSWERS
I. THE INCONCLUSIVENESS OF STATISTICS
II. THE INCONCLUSIVENESS OF FEELINGS

Annex to B II: A Critique of Gibbon’s General Observations on the Fall of the Roman Empire in the West

C. THE TESTIMONY OF THE HISTORIES OF THE CIVILIZATIONS
I. WESTERN EXPERIENCES WITH NON-WESTERN PRECEDENTS
II. UNPRECEDENTED WESTERN EXPERIENCES

D. TECHNOLOGY, WAR AND GOVERNMENT
I. THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF THE PROBLEM
II. THE SITUATION AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR
(a) A Progressive Concentration of Power
(b) A Metamorphosis of the Oikoumenê
(c) A Transmigration of the Martial Spirit
The Crescendo and Diminuendo of Militarism in Western Europe
The Significance of Hitler’s Bid for World-Dominion
The Temper generated by Militarization in the Non-Western Peasantry
The Temper in the Soviet Union and in the United States
The Psychological Consequences of Atomic Warfare
III. Alternative Possible Approaches to World Order
IV. POSSIBLE CONSTITUENT ELEMENTS OF A FUTURE WORLD ORDER
V. PROBABLE FUNCTIONS OF A FUTURE WORLD ORDER

E. TECHNOLOGY, CLASS-CONFLICT, AND EMPLOYMENT
I. THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF THE PROBLEM
II. THE SITUATION AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR
III. ALTERNATIVE POSSIBLE APPROACHES TO SOCIAL HARMONY
IV. POSSIBLE COSTS OF SOCIAL JUSTICE
V. PROBABLE EMPLOYMENTS IN A FUTURE OECUMENICAL SOCIETY
(a) “A Commonwealth of Swine”
(b) “The Argonauts of the Western Pacific”
(c) The Spiritual Odyssey of the Western World
(d) The “Law” of Psychological Compensation

F. THE STRAITS AHEAD

Table: The Time-spans of the Growth-Phases of the Affiliated Civilizations

~~~

VOLUME X

XIII. THE INSPIRATIONS OF HISTORIANS

A. THE HISTORIAN’S ANGLE OF VISION

B. THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE FACTS OF HISTORY
I. RECEPTIVITY
II. CURIOSITY
III. THE WILL-O’-THE WISP OF OMNISCIENCE

Annex to B III: A Business School of Intellectual Action

C. THE IMPULSE TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FACTS OF HISTORY
I. CRITICAL REACTIONS
II. CRITICAL RESPONSES
(a) Miniscula
(b) Paullo Maiora
1. Inspirations from Social Milieux
Clarendon, Procopius, Josephus, Thucydides, Rhodes
Polybius
Josephus and Ibn al-Tiqtaqā
‘Alā-ad-Dīn Juwaynī and Rashīd-ad-Dīn Hamadānī
Herodotus
Turgot
Ibn Khaldūn
Saint Augustine
A Twentieth-century Western Student of History
2. Inspirations from Personal Experiences
Gibbon
Volney
Peregrinus Wiccamicus
Yosoburo Takekoshi

D. THE FEELING FOR POETRY IN THE FACTS OF HISTORY

E. THE QUEST FOR A MEANING BEHIND THE FACTS OF HISTORY

A NOTE ON CHRONOLOGY
I. The Problem
II. The Case for the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson Correlation of the Yuatec and Mayan Chronology with Years of the Christian Era
III. The Current Controversy over the Dating of the First Dynasty of Babylon in Terms of Years B.C.
The Overthrow of Eduard Meyer’s Reconstruction of the Chronology of South-West Asian History
The Stratigraphical Evidence from Sites in North Syria
The Evidence of the Mari Archives
The Evidence of the Khorsabad List of Kings of Assyria
The Chronological Significance of Ammi-şaduga’s Venus Observations
The Relative Certainty of the Dating of the Egyptiac “Middle Empire”
The Picture Presented by the Mari Archives and by the Babylonian Archives dating from the Reign of Hammurabi
The Nemesis of Hammurabi’s Imperialism
An Egyptiac Chronological Framework for the 210 Years of South-West Asian History running from the Earliest of the Letters in the Diplomatic Correspondence of King Šamši-Adad I of Assyria down to the Hittite War-Lord Muršiliš I’s Raid on Babylon
The Twelfth Dynasty’s Ascendancy over Syria and the Dating of Šamši-Adad I’s Diplomatic Correspondence
The Eighteenth Dynasty’s Ascendancy over Syria and the Dating of Muršiliš I’s Raid on Babylon
The Contemporaneity of Ikhnaton’s Reign with Suppiluliuma’s and the Dating of Muršiliš I’s Raid on Babylon
The Hyskos Conquest of Egypt and the Dating of the Reign of Hammurabi
The Kassite Conquest of Babylonia and the Dating of the Reign of Hammurabi
Some Provisional Conclusions from the Evidence as It Stood in A.D. 1952
The Chronology Adopted in Volumes VII-X of this Study

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND THANKS
I. To Marcus, for Teaching Me to Return Thanks to My Benefactors
II. To My Mother, for Making Me an Historian
III. To Edward Gibbon, for Showing Me, by Example, What an Historian Could Do
IV. To People, Institutions, Landscapes, Monuments, Pictures, Languages, and Books, for Exciting My Curiosity
V. To People and Books, for Teaching Me Methods of Intellectual Work
VI. To People and Books, for Teaching Me Methods of Literary Presentation
VII. To People, Monuments, Apparatus, Pictures, Books, and Events, for Giving Me Intuitions and Ideas
VIII. To People and Institutions, for Showing Kindness to Me

INDEX TO VOLUMES VII-X, by V. M. TOYNBEE

~~~

VOLUME XI

HISTORICAL ATLAS AND GAZETTEER, with Edward D. Myers

PREFACE, by Arnold J. Toynbee, 14 November 1958 [“[...] The Gazetteer has been compiled, in consultation with me, by my friend Professor E. D. Myers, the head of the Department of Philosophy in Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia. The maps are the work of four people. The original rough sketches and accompanying notes were produced for most of the maps by Professor Myers and for the rest by me, and these were then converted into professional drawings, for reproduction, by Mrs. Gomme with the assistance with the assistance of Miss Patricia Davidson (now Mrs. Griffin). / Mrs. Gomme and I were colleagues during the Second World War, when Mrs. Gomme was in charge of the cartographical section of the Foreign Office Research Department, of which I was the Director. [...]”]

PREFATORY NOTE, by Edward D. Myers

PART I

NOTE

ABBREVIATIONS

GAZETTEER TO A STUDY OF HISTORY

PART II

MAPS
I. SYNOPTIC VIEWS OF CIVILIZATIONS AND HIGHER RELIGIONS
1. The Physical Setting of the Civilizations
2. The Civilizations
2 A. The Primary Civilizations in the Old World
2 B. The Secondary Civilizations in the Old World
2 C. The Tertiary Civilizations in the Old World
2 D. The Primary Civilizations in the New World
2 E. The Secondary Civilizations in the New World
3. A Conspectus of Successive Civilizations in the Old World
4. Civilizations Current in A.D. 1952
5. The Higher Religions
5 A. Rudimentary Higher Religions
5 B. Higher Religions
5 C. Secondary Higher Religions
6 & 7. The Concentric Expansion of (i) Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; (ii) the Hīnayāna, the Mahāyāna, and Hinduism
8. Philosophies and Religious Currents in A.D. 1952
9. The Extension of Islam, circa A.D. 1952
II. PRIMARY CIVILIZATIONS IN THE OLD WORLD
10. The Cradle of the Sumeric Civilization
11. South-West Asia, Egypt, and the Aegean in the 18th cent. B.C.: Successor-States of the Third Dynasty of Ur at the Beginning of Hammurabi’s Reign at Babylon, 1792 or 1728 B.C.
12 A. The Domain of the Nomad Civilization and Its Borderlands (Physical Features)
12 B. The Domain of the Nomad Civilization and Its Borderlands (Vents and Thresholds)
13. The Cradle of the Egyptiac Civilization
13 A. The Egyptiac Civilization in the Upper Nile Valley
14. The New Empire and Its Neighbours after Thothmes III’s Campaign in the Thirty-third Year of His Reign (? 1458 B.C.)
15. The Hittite and Minoan Worlds in the Second Half of the Fourteenth Century B.C., after the Break-up of the Arzawan Empire by the Khatti Emperor Muršiliš II
16. The Aegean, Egypt, and South-west Asia on the Eve of the Barbarian Invasions at the Turn of the Thirteenth and Twelfth Centuries B.C.
III. SECONDARY CIVILIZATIONS IN THE OLD WORLD
17. The Cradle of the Syriac Civilization after the Battle of the Nile (? 1188 B.C.) down to the Battle of Qarqar (853 B.C.)
18. The Assyrian Empire circa 638 B.C.
19. Successor-States of the Assyrian Empire, 556 B.C.
20. The Achaemenian Empire: Communications and Taxation Districts on the Eve of Xerxes’ Invasion of Continental European Greece in 480 B.C.
20 A. A Conspectus of the Achaemenian Empire, 480 B.C., and the ‘Abbasid Caliphate, A.D. 756
21. The Achaemenian Empire, Its Viceroyalties, and Its Neighbours on the Eve of Xerxes’ Invasion of Continental European Greece in 480 B.C.
21 A. The Syrian “Roundabout”
21 B. The Central Asian “Roundabout”
22. The Indic World in the Time of the Buddha
23. The Mauryan Empire in the Time of Açoka (273-232 B.C.)
23 A. A Conspectus of the Mauryan Empire (circa 260 B.C.) and the Guptan Empire (circa A.D. 450)
24. The Extension of the Hellenic Civilization Overland, 171 B.C.
24 A. Northern Italy, 171 B.C. (Large-scale Section of Map 24)
24 B. Greece and Asia Minor, 171 B.C. (Large-scale Section of Map 24)
25. The Contending States of the Sinic World in the Pre-Confucian Age (679/8 B.C.)
26. The Contending States of the Sinic World in the Post-Confucian Age, circa 280 B.C.
27. Successor-States of the Bactrian Greek Empire in the Third Quarter of the Last Century B.C.
27 A. A Conspectus of the Han Empire (circa 36 B.C.) and the T’ang Empire (circa A.D. 660)
28. The Han, Kushan, Arsacid, and Roman Empires, A.D. 100
28 A. A Conspectus of the Roman, Arsacid, and Kushan (A.D. 100) and the Ottoman, Safawi, and Mughal Empires (A.D. 1605)
29. The Competition among Higher Religions in the Roman Empire
30. The Guptan Empire circa A.D. 450
30 A. A Conspectus of the Mauryan Empire (circa 260 B.C.) and the Guptan Empire (circa A.D. 450)
31. A Conspectus of the Expansion of the Syriac Civilization
32. A Conspectus of the Expansion of the Hellenic and Indic Civilizations
IV. TERTIARY CIVILIZATIONS IN THE OLD WORLD
33. The Anatomy of Orthodox Christendom and Western Christendom
34. The Emergence of the East Roman Empire out of the Roman Empire
35. The Abortive Far Western Christian Civilization in Ireland, Britain, and Brittany
36. The Radiation of the Abortive Far Western Christian Civilization on the Continent
37. The T’ang Empire, ‘Abbasid Caliphate, East Roman Empire, and Carolingian Empire circa A.D. 815
37 A. A Conspectus of the Achaemenian Empire, 480 B.C., and the ‘Abbaside Caliphate, A.D. 756
37 B. A Conspectus of the Han Empire (circa 36 B.C.) and the T’ang Empire (circa A.D. 660)
37 C. The Scandinavian Völkerwanderung
38. The Distribution of the Judaic Religions circa A.D. 732
39. The Distribution of the Judaic Religions on the Eve of the Mongol Explosion in the Thirteenth Century of the Christian Era
40. The East Roman Empire on the Eve of the Norman and Saljūq Assaults, A.D. 1045
41. The Flow and Ebb of the Crusades in the Mediterranean and the Baltic
42. The Slavonic-speaking Peoples on the Eve of the Fall of the Khazar Empire on the Great Western Bay of the Eurasian Steppe in the Tenth Century of the Christian Era
43. The Russian Principalities in A.D. 1237, on the Eve of the Mongol Explosion
44. The Hindu World on the Eve of the Iranic Muslim Invasions towards the End of the Tenth Century
45. The Progressive Conquest of the Hindu World by Iranic Muslim Invaders
46. Successor-States of the T’ang and ‘Abbasid Empires on the Eve the Mongol Eruption, A.D. 1186
47. The Mongol Empire and the Western City-State Cosmos circa A.D. 1310
47 A. A Conspectus of the Mongol Empire (A.D. 1310) and the Manchu Empire (A.D. 1795)
48 A. The City-States of Northern and Central Italy circa A.D. 1310
48 B. The Hansa Towns circa A.D. 1375
49. The Expansion of Muscovy circa A.D. 1300-1955
50. The Anatomy of the Iranic and Arabic Muslim Civilizations
51. The Mughal, Safawi, and Ottoman Empires, the Danubian and Spanish Hapsburg Monarchies, and France, A.D. 1572
51 A. A Conspectus of the Roman, Arsacid, and Kushan Empires (A.D. 100) and the Ottoman, Safawi, and Mughal Empires (A.D. 1605)
52. The Mughal Raj in India, down to A.D. 1707
52 A. The Successor-States of the Mughal Raj in India, A.D. 1802
53. The British Raj in India, A.D. 1941
53 A. The Successor-States of British Raj in India, A.D. 1952
54. The Manchu and Russian Empires. A.D. 1795
54 A. A Conspectus of the Mongol Empire (A.D. 1310) and the Manchu Empire (A.D. 1795)
55 A. The Expansion of the Offshoot of the Far Eastern Civilization in Japan
55 B. Japan in the Last Phase of Her Time of Troubles, on the Eve of the Arrival of the Portuguese, A.D. 1540
55 C. The Administrative Organization of the Tokugawa Shogunate, A.D. 1615
55 D. The Relation of the Japanese Archipelago to the Continent
56. Charles V’s Europe, A.D. 1525
57. The Great Powers of the Western World in Europe, A.D. 1572
58. The Great Powers of the Western World in Europe, A.D. 1672
59. The Great Powers of the Western World in Europe, A.D. 1772
60. Napoleon’s Europe, A.D. 1811
61. The Great Powers of the Western World in Europe, A.D. 1872
62. The Great Powers of the Western World in Europe, A.D. 1925
63. Hitler’s Europe before the Battles of Stalingrad and ‘Alamayn, Autumn 1942
64. The Great Powers of the World, A.D. 1914
65. The Great Powers of the World, A.D. 1955
66. The Extension of the Western Civilization on the Economic, Political and Cultural Planes in A.D. 1955
V. CIVILIZATIONS IN THE NEW WORLD
67. The Setting of the Andean Civilization, A: Oreographical, B: Vegetational
68. The Inca Empire on the Eve of the Spanish Conquest
69. The Spanish Dominions in the Andes, A.D. 1776
70. The Monuments of the Mayan and Yucatec Civilizations
71. The Culhua-Mexica Empire on the Eve of the Spanish Conquest
72. The Viceroyalty of New Spain, A.D. 1776
73. The Physical Setting of the Horse Indians and Their Successors the Cattlemen in North America

Appendix: A Note on Hittite Sites and Locations on Maps 15-16, by Arnold J. Toynbee

INDEX TO MAPS

~~~

VOLUME XII

PREFACE, 26 November, 1960

INTRODUCTION

RECONSIDERATIONS

A. PHILOSOPHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
I. THE INADEQUACY OF OUR MEANS OF THOUGHT
1. Apprehension through Analysis and Classification
2. The Historians’ Pursuit of the Unique
3. The Mind’s Quest for Explanation
4. The Relativity of Explanation to Outlook
5. The Explanatory Use of Analogy
6. The Heuristic Use of Hypotheses
II. THE RELATIVITY OF A HUMAN OBSERVER’S APPROACH TO HUMAN AFFAIRS

Annex to II: Ad Hominem:
1. Acknowledgements and Thanks to My Critics
2. Effects of a Classical Education
(i) Fortunate Effects
(ii) Unfortunate Effects
(a) Effects on my Writing of English
(b) Effects on the Range of my Knowledge
3. Effects of Having been Born in 1889 and in England
4. Effects of Being What One Is
(i) Irreverence towards Pretensions to Uniqueness
(ii) Disregard for Scholarly Caution

III. THE RELATIVITY OF A HUMAN OBSERVER’S APPROACH TO RELIGION
1. The Issue between Trans-Rationalists and Rationalists
2. The Higher Religions’ Declaration of Independence and Its Implications
3. The Higher Religions’ Status in the Light of the Phenomena
4. The Limits of Present Possibilities of Agreement

B. RECONSIDERATIONS OF STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS
IV. THE PROBLEM OF QUANTITY IN THE STUDY OF HUMAN AFFAIRS
1. The Ineffectiveness of Team-Work in Intellectual Operations
2. The Inordinate Increase in the Quantity of Information about Human Affairs
3. Attempts to Bridge the Gap between Our Knowledge of Psychic and Social Phenomena and Our Knowledge of the Acts of Individual Human Beings
4. The Distorting Effects of Devices for Reducing the Quantity of Information
5. The Need for Simultaneous Cultivation of Panoramic and Myopic Vision

Annex to IV: Is there Any Master-Activity in Human Affairs?

V. THE NEED FOR A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HUMAN AFFAIRS
VI. THE PROBLEM OF ORGANIZING A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HUMAN AFFAIRS
1. The Use and Abuse of Simplifications
2. The Unavoidableness of Comparative Study by Means of Models
3. A Retrial of the Hellenic Model for Civilizations
4. A Chinese Alternative Model for Civilizations
5. A Helleno-Sinic Standard Model for Civilizations
6. A Jewish Alternative Model for Civilizations
7. Is it Possible to Construct a Higher Model for Civilizations?

C. RECONSIDERATIONS OF PARTICULAR TOPICS
VII. EXPLANATIONS AND REVISIONS OF USAGES OF TERMS
1. Definitions
2. History
3. Metahistory
4. Facts
5. Laws
6. Empirical
7. Myth
8. Creation
9. Challenge-and-Response
10. Withdrawal-and-Return
11. Progress
12. Institutions
13. Society
14. Culture
15. Civilization
16. Societies
17. Communities
18. Civilizations
19. “Fossils”
20. Breakdowns
21. Creative and Dominant Minorities
22. The Proletariat
23. Higher Religions
24. Universal States
25. Universal Churches
26. Scepticism
27. Rationalism
28. Agnosticism

Annex to VII: Comment by Rabbi J. B. Agus on Professor Toynbee’s Use of the Term “Fossil” with Reference to the Jewish Community

VIII. THE RELATION BETWEEN MAN AND HIS ENVIRONMENT
IX. THE TRANSITIONAL SOCIETIES
X. ORIGINALITY VERSUS MIMESIS
1. Stimulus Diffusion
2. The Genesis of the Egyptiac Civilization
3. The Genesis of the Indus Culture
4. The Genesis of Civilization in China
5. The Genesis of the Andean Civilization
6. What were the Extent and the Importance of the Pre-Columbian Cultural Relations between the Old World and the Americas?
XI. THE CONFIGURATION OF MIDDLE AMERICAN AND ANDEAN HISTORY
XII. ROME’S PLACE IN HISTORY
XIII. THE CONFIGURATION OF SYRIAC HISTORY
1. The Problem
2. Results of Using the Hellenic Model as a Key to the Solution of the Syriac Problem
3. Reasons for Reconsidering these Results
4. The Historical Background to the History of Syria in the Last Millennium B.C.
5. Was there One Only, or More than One, Civilization in Syria in the Last Millennium B.C.?
6. The Extent of the Syriac Society’s Cultural Expansion after the Loss of Political Independence
7. The Duration of the Syriac Society’s Cultural Continuity after Its Loss of Political Independence
8. Spengler’s Hypothetical “Magian Civilization”
9. A Syriac-Hellenic Culture-Compost
10. The Syriac-Hellenic Culture-Compost’s Harvest

Annex to XIII: Comment by Rabbi J. B. Agus on The Notion of Uniqueness

XIV. ISLAM’S PLACE IN HISTORY
XV. THE HISTORY AND PROSPECTS OF THE JEWS
1. The Relativity of the Interpretation of Jewish History
2. The Jews’ Paramount Aim and the Religious and Psychological Consequences of Their Success in Achieving it
3. The Change in the Jews’ Concept of the Character of Yahweh
4. The Re-interpretation of Israel’s and Judah’s Pre-Exilic Literature
(i) General Effects of the Extinction of the Kingdom of Judah and Deportation of the Jews to Babylonia
(ii) The Synagogues
(iii) The Pharisees
(iv) The Pharisees’ Conception of the Nature of the Jewish Scriptures
(v) The Pharisees’ Method of Interpreting the Written Torah
5. The Issue between Nationalism and Universalism

Annex to XV: Comment by Rabbi J. B. Agus on the Continuity of The Prophetic Element in Judaism

XVI. THE HISTORY AND PROSPECTS OF THE WEST
XVII. RUSSIA’S PLACE IN HISTORY
XVIII. A RE-SURVEY OF CIVILIZATIONS

Annex to XVIII: Spengler’s Concept of “Pseudomorphosis”

XIX. THE NEXT LEDGE

BIBLIOGRAPHY [the only bibliography in the Study]

A. WORKS OF GENERAL INTEREST
1. The General Study of Human Affairs
(i) The Theory of Knowledge in Its Application to the Study of Human Affairs
(ii) The Morphology of History and Metahistory
(iii) The Relation between Man and Environment
2. The Prelude to the Rise of Civilization in Sumer and Egypt
3. The Rise of Civilization in China
4. The Configuration of Chinese History
5. The Pre-Columbian Civilizations in the Americas
6. Pre-Columbian Contacts between the Americas and the Old World
7. The Syriac Civilization (including Israel and Judah)
8. The Jews since 586 B.C.

B. CRITIQUES OF A. J. TOYNBEE’S WORK

INDEX

7 Responses to “Contents of the Study”


  1. [...] Contents of the Study [...]

  2. T K Johnson Says:

    Can you make available the entire Study as a downloadable e-book ?

  3. davidderrick Says:

    Unfortunately not legally. If OUP is smart, it will do this, though judging by current examples, rendering a text as complicated as this will be difficult.


  4. I find your web site an amazing source for the achievemernt of a global historiography through which all people and countries will see their contribution to the growth of civilisation.
    Unfortunately, French chauvinism has prevented such an approach for the past 30-40 years. I really appreciate you effort and thank you very much on behalf of many people like myself

  5. Kenny Says:

    would you happen to know where i could find a translation of the poem in greek at the beginning of volume one?


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s