As night falls in Iraq, let’s summarise Christianity there and eastern Christianity generally.
The autocephalous Orthodox (Eastern Orthodox) churches (Greece, Russia, etc) accept the formulation on the nature of Christ promulgated at the Council of Chalcedon (451). They mainly use two liturgies in the Byzantine rite: those of St John Chrysostom and of St Basil the Great (Basil of Caesarea). The main liturgical languages are Greek and Church Slavonic.
The Oriental Orthodox (Miaphysite) churches reject the Chalcedonian formulation. They are in full communion with each other, but not with the Orthodox churches. They include the dominant Christian churches in Egypt, Eritrea and Ethiopia. Oriental Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in Armenia and in the ethnically Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.
There are 23 Eastern Catholic churches: autonomous, self-governing particular churches in communion with Rome which use non-Latin rites. Are they all technically “uniate”? Is that word universally applied? Together with the Latin Church, they make up the entire Catholic Church.
The ones in the near and middle east, ie the ones not mainly established in Europe, the Horn of Africa or India, are, in no particular order, the Armenian Catholic Church (Armenian rite in Armenian; based in Lebanon), Greek Byzantine Catholic Church (Byzantine rite in Koine and modern Greek; based in Greece), Melkite Greek Catholic Church (Byzantine rite in Arabic and sometimes Greek; based in Syria), Syriac Maronite Church (West Syrian rite in Syriac, a modern version of Aramaic; based in Lebanon), Chaldean Catholic Church (East Syrian rite in Syriac; based in Iraq), Syriac Catholic Church (West Syrian rite in Syriac; based in Lebanon) and Coptic Catholic Church (Alexandrian rite in Coptic and Arabic; based in Egypt). All have diasporas. There are other rites.
The Nestorian (aka East Syrian) church survives in the Church of the East.
Iraqi Christians are divided into:
Oriental Orthodox, or the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (West Syrian rite)
Catholics, the Chaldean Catholic Church (East Syrian rite) and Syriac Catholic Church (West Syrian rite)
Nestorians, or the Assyrian Church of the East (from which the Ancient Church of the East is a split dating from 1968) (East Syrian rite).
I mentioned the Yazidi of Iraq here and here. Their religion blends elements of Mithraism, pre-Islamic Mesopotamian religious traditions, Christianity and Islam. Toynbee commits a common howler (in Turkey, A Past and a Future) by saying that they worship Satan, a myth that is perpetuated by their persecutors in the Islamic State.
I will do a separate post on Indian churches (next).
S Rozhdestvom! (lists the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches)
Ottoman people and Orthodox churches (lists the Oriental Orthodox churches)