969-1171 Ismaili Shia Fatimid Caliphate
1171-1250 Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty founded by Saladin; Saladin had climbed the ranks of the Fatimid government and in the following years led campaigns against the Crusaders; he reincorporated Egypt in the Abbasid Caliphate
1250-1517 Mamluk sultans; Mamluk regiments, soldiers of slave origin from the Caucasus and Crimea, had constituted the backbone of the military under the Ayyubid dynasty; Ottoman Turks conquered Egypt in 1517
The main line of Sunni Caliphs – Rightly Guided, Umayyad, Abbasid – came to an end when the Mongols conquered Baghdad in 1258. A surviving member of the Abbasid house was installed at Cairo under the patronage of the newly-formed Mamluk Sultanate three years later. In 1517 the Ottoman Turks took the last nominal Abbasid Caliph at Cairo into custody and transported him to Constantinople, where the institution of the Caliphate went into abeyance for two and a half centuries.